KPDS MAYIS 1997 SORULARI
1. As a result of the continuing economic recession, a huge ………. in the budget seems inevitable.
A- redundancy B- improvement C- profit D- distinction E- deficit
2. The recent economic figures …….. that the country is slowly coming out of the crisis.
A- commit B- imply C- incur D- evolve E- invoke
3. When the rate of exchange began to rise again, he felt …………. to call a meeting of the financial staff.
A- obliged B- blamed C- consumed D- omitted E- rewarded
4. As far as we are concerned, the evidence put before the court was not ………enough to convict the man.
A- subsequent B- conclusive C- adamant D- earnest E- consecutive
5. He devised an …………… scheme whereby the rate of unemployment in the country could be brought down sharply.
A- irrelevant B- unstable C- ingenious D- untamed E- illegible
6. I was greatly impressed by the way the judge conducted the trail, …………. When it came to summing up the case.
A- particularly B- completely C- sufficiently D- effectively E- respectively
7. As soon as the leak in the boiler was noticed, one of the engineers was naturally………….. .
A- taken after B- run down C- made out D- sent for E- turned up
8. At the board meeting, his suggestion was ……… as it seemed politically controversial.
A- put out B- fallen out C- held in D- burst into E- cast aside
9. When the relief workers reached the scene of the disaster, they immediately began to help ………… who could do nothing for ……. .
A- that / himself B- them their C- those / themselves D- these / ourselves E- us / yourself
10. The very idea of establishing a literary “canon” has become ………. controversial that the people running the Library of America have wisely avoided using the term.
A- too B- as C- such D- so E- more
11. They haven’t met twelve years or more, but I understand they still write to ……… at regular intervals.
A- the other B- each other C- themselves D- the others E- one another
12. It was foolish of me to turn down such an offer; in fact, …………. I think about it …….. I regret it .
A- as much / so much more B- the more / as much
C- much / as much D- the most / so much
E- the more / the more
13. The scheme has been ……….. consideration for a long time now , but I doubt whether it will ever be put ……. effect.
A- under / into B- within / through C- for / to D- in / off E- over / over
14. It was …………. his efforts that the two sides finally agreed to hold talks ………the principles of economic co-operation.
A- by / through B- over / for C- through / on D- with / at E- without / from
15. I was forced to admit that there was a drop in sales towards the end of the year ……..he had predicted.
A- such as B- even so C- in case D- just as E- so far as
16. Under these circumstances he should have never been allowed to take charge of the operation ………….. he was the most senior of the officers available.
A- why ever B- whether C- even though D- whenever E- so that
17. Why can’t you admit that, …….. hard he works he will never manage to achieve what his elder brother has achieved?
A- unless B- whatsoever C- though D- whenever E- however
18. Many more people would doubtless have attended the debate ……. they had known in advance who the principal speakers were.
A- only if B- while C- since D- after E- until
19. If our delegates hadn’t shown themselves willing to come to terms, those from other countries………………. .
A- would be, too.
B- wouldn’t have, either
C- had not, either.
D- have had, too.
E- would have, too.
20. In recent decades the efficiency of the United Nations …………. by a growing number of countries.,
A- will have been questioned
B- was questioned
C- had been questioned
D- would be questioned
E- has been questioned
21. It seems likely that by the end of the week, the costs involved in the construction of the bridge …………..by the Ministry.
A- would have been announced
B- would be announced
C- are being announced
D- will have been announced
E- have been announced
22. They set up a liaison office in East Africa for marketing their goods but now they wish they ……… so.
A- had not done B- have not done C- would not do D- would not have done E- never do
23. Had they apologised deliberately overcharging me, I ……. a complaint with the Consumers’ Right Office .
A- will not have filed B- may not have filed C- would not have filed D- was not filing E- may not file
24. We ……… no problems whatsoever with the dam since it …….. forty years ago.
A- had / has been constructed
B- have had /was constructed
C- had had / had been constructed
D- are having / is constructed
E- were having / was being constructed
Find the suitable sentence that completes
25. ……… you get magnificent views of the oak covered slopes of these coastal mountain ranges that rise up from the Pacific.
A- If only the new road had been opened.
B- As they headed for San Francisco
C- However unfairly the state of the roads was being attacked.
D- Even though a great deal of money went into constructing the road.
E- As you drive along the coast road.
26. Dramatic cultural changes have been taking place in the United States …………….. .
A- ever since non-European immigrants began to pour into the country.
B- until new regulations concerning immigrants were introduced.
C- which started at the turn of the country.
D- some of which would have been regarded as harmful
E- as soon as World War II ended
27. One of the best suggestions was put forward by Dr. Johnson, ……….
A- that the managing director was especially impressed.
B- who is generally the quietest member of the board
C- through the financial demands might be difficult to meet.
D- unless it was approved by the committee
E- before anyone else has time to make any contribution to the discussion
28. Darwin’s theory of evolution was based on the observation ……………… .
A- white amassing evidence for 25 years in support of it.
B- why many people of his own age were reluctant to admit it.
C- whether his insight really was revolutionary
D- that all individuals of the same species are not identical
E- since the multiplicity of the unique forms emerged.
29. Although the effects of the famine have been made worse by the political instability in the country, ………
A- the West would have shown its sympathy in a most generous manner.
B- it was beyond the power of any government to undertake the responsibility
C- a fair distribution of the available food will have been achieved.
D- so one disaster was naturally followed by another.
E- food is now being distributed wherever it is needed.
30. ………….. , but it is not the only one.
A- Newspaper prices have risen dramatically in recent years
B- Most diseases are caused by germs and bad hygiene
C- Technological competition is a serious problem for the book industry
D- The printing press was invented by Johan Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany in 15th century.
E- The judge rebuked the witnesses for their disrespectful behaviour during the trail
31. ……… that they will be made redundant once the office has been computerized.
A- They called off the strike
B- The board of directors discussed the matter fully
C- The management adopted new marketing policies
D- The prospect for the company looks rather gloomy
E- Most of the staff are certain
32. If your boss asked you to take on extra work without more pay , …………..?
A- have you discussed the matter with him
B- would you agree to do so
C- why do you think he me, have suggested this
D- what was the reaction of our colleagues
E- will you resign at once
Find the Turkish equivalent of the given sentence
33. To protect its own fisheries, Canada has taken a tougher line with foreign vessels fishing its coasts.
A- Kanada, kendi balikçılığını geliştirebilmek için, kıyılarında avlanan yabancı teknelere karşı önlemlerini
B- Kanada, kendi balıkçılık bölgelerini kurtarmak amacıyla, kıyılarında avlanan yabancı teknelere karşı sert önlemler almıştır.
C- Kanada, kendi balıkçılığını güçlendirmek için, kıyılarında balık avlayan yabancı teknelere karşı daha sert bir tavır almıştır.
D- Kanada, kendi balık alanlarını korumak için, kıyılarında balık avlayan yabancı teknelere karşı daha sert bir tavır almıştır.
E- Kanada, kendi balık alanlarını iyileştirme amacıyla, sert önlemler alarak kıyılarında yabancı teknelerin avlanmasını engellemiştir.
34. In his statement he did not conceal the fact that Serbia’ hard-line attitude had led to the breakdown of the talks.
A- Demecinde, Sırbıstanın katı tutumunun görüşmelerin kesilmesine yol açtığı gerçeğini saklamadı.
B- Yaptığı açıklamada,görüşmelerin kesilmesinde Sırbıstanın uzlaşmaz tutumunun etkili olduğu gerçeğini saklamadı
C- Konuşmasında Sırbıstan’ın olumsuz tavrı sonucu görüşmelerin kesildiği gerçeğini belirtmekten kaçınmadı
D- Görüşmelerin kesilmesinde, Sırbıstan’ın uzlaşmaz tavrının neden olduğu gerçeğini belirtmekten çekinmedi.
E- Sırbıstan’ın katl tutumu nedeniyle görüşmelerin kesildiğini açıkça belirtmekten çekimmedi.
35. It seems likely that the recession in the wool-textile industry will continue throughout the year and that many mills may be permanently closed.
A- -Görünüşe bakılırsa, yünlü dokuma sanayiindeki gerileme yıl içinde de sürecek ve bazı fabrikalar kapanacaktır.
B- Yünlü dokuma sanayiince bütün yıl boyunca devam eden bunalım sonucufabrikanın süresiz olarak kapanması kaçınılmaz görünüyor.
C- Yünlü dokuma sanayiinde yıl içinde bir durgunluk görüleceği ve pek çok fabrikanın tamamen kapanacağı kesindir.
D- Yünlü dokuma sanayiindeki durgunluğun yıl boyunce süreceği ve pek çok fabrikanın süresiz kapanabileceği muhtemel görünüyor
E- Çoğu fabrikanın süresiz kapanmasına neden olabilecek durgunluk, yünlü dokuma sanayiinde yıl boyunca devam edecek gibi görünüyor.
36. What we really expect to find in a work of art is a certain personal element and a distinctive sensibility.
A- Bir sanat eserinde bulunmasını istediğimiz şeyler aslında belirli bir kişisel nitelik ile kendine özgü duyarlılıktır
B- Belirli bir kişisel anlatım ve farklı bir duyarlılık , bir sanat eserinde gerçekten bulunması istenen niteliklerdir.
C- Gerçekten bir sanat eserinde bulmayı umduğumuz şey, belirli bir kişisel öge ve belirgin bir duyarlılıktır.
D- Çarpıcı bir duyarlılık ve belirli bir kişisel boyut bir sanat eserinde esas olarak bulunmasını istediğimiz ögelerdir.
E- Belirli bir kişisel özelliğin ve etkileyici bir duyarlılığın, bir sanat eserinde bulunmasını gerçekten arzuluyoruz.
37. It was pointed out that the company, which had been on the verge of bankruptcy, got over the crises through substantial borrowing from various banks.
A- Iflasın eşiğinde gelmiş geçmiş olan şirketin çeşitli bankalarda yüklü krediler alarak bunalımı aştığı belirtildi.
B- Bazı bankalardan bol kredi alarak bunalımı azaltmaya çalışan şirketin, iflasa doğru sürüklendiği bildirildi.
C- Iflasla karşı karşıya gelmiş olan şirketin, bunalımı aşmak için, pek çok bankadan krediler aldığı ifade edildi.
D- Çeşitli bankalardan yüklü krediler alarak bunalımı atlatmaya çalışan şirketin iflastan kurtulmadığı açıklandı.
E- Iflas tehlikesini atlatmış olan şirketin bazı bankalardan bol kredi alarak bunalımdan çıktığı bildirildi.
38. Since the signing of the Maastrich Treaty, Britain has constantly been in conflict with her partners in the European Union over the question of monetary union.
A- Maasrict Anlaşması imzalandıktan sonra,İngiltere para birliği konusunu ileri sürerek, Avrupa birliğindeki ortaklarıyla sert bir çatşma içine girmiştir.
B- Maasrict Anlaşmasının imzalanmasından beri İngiltere, Avrupa birliğindeki ortaklarıyla para birliği konusunda sürekli bir çatşma içinde olmuştur.
C- Maasrict Anlaşmasının imzalanmasından bu yana , İngiltere para birliği üzerinde durmuş ve Avrupa Birliğindeki ortakları ile zaman zaman tartışmıştır.
D- Maasrict Anlaşmasının imzalanması üzerine, İngiltere para birliği konusunda Avrupa Birliğindeki ortaklarından farklı bir tavır içine girmiştir.
E- Maasrict Anlaşmasının imzalanmasıyla İngiltere , para birliği konusunda Avrupa Birliğindeki ortaklarıyla tam bir uyum içine girmiştir.
39. The committee unanimously rejected a proposal to divide the city into two zones and stressed the need to consider the whole city as a unit.
A- Kurul , kenti iki bölgeye ayırmayı amaçlayan öneriyi tümüyle reddetti ve kentin bir bütün olarak ele alınması gerektiğini savundu.
B- Kent,im iki bölgeye ayrılmasına ilişkin öneriyi derhal reddeden kurul, tüm kentin bir bütün olarak ele alınması gerektiği görüşüne vardı.
C- Kuru, kenti iki bölgeye ayırma önerisini oybirliğiyle reddetti ve tüm kentin bir bütün olarak düşünülmesi gerektiğini vurguladı.
D- Tüm kentin bir bütün olarak değerlendirilmesi gereğiüzerinde duran kurul, kenti iki bölgeye ayırmaya yönelik öneriyi tereddütsüz reddetti.
E- Kentin iki bölgeye ayrılmasını öngören öneriyi oy çokluğu ile reddeden kurul, tüm kentin bir bütün olarak görülmesi gereği üzerinde ısrarla durdu.
40. The report makes it clear that in1996 most European countries met almost half of their energy needs by means of natural gas.
A- Raporda doğal gazın 1996’da Avrupa ülkelerinin çoğunda enerji ihtiyacının yaklaşık yarısını karşıladığı belirtilmektedir.
B- Avrupa ülkelerinin çoğunun , enerji ihtiyaçlarının yarısını doğal gaz kullanarak karşıladığı 1996’da hazırlanan raporda da açıklanmıştır.
C- Raporda, 1996 ‘da Avrupa’da , enerji ihtiyaçlarının yarısından çoğunu doğal gaz yoluyla karşılayan pek çok ülke olduğu açıkça ifade edilmektedir.
D- Raporda açıkça ifade edildiğine göre 1996’da çoğu Avrupa ülkesi , enerji ihtiyacının yarısını doğal gazla karşılamak zorunda kalmıştır.
E- Rapor, 1996’da çoğu Avrupa ülkesinin, enerji ihtiyaçlarının yaklaşık yarısıdoğal gaz vasıtasıyla karşılandığını açıkça ortaya koymaktadır.
41. Most speakers at the meeting pointed out that, in recent years, some of the research projects undertaken by universities had been concerned more with current problems than with purely scientific matters.
A- Toplantıya katılan çoğu konuşmacı, son yıllarda üniversiteler tarafından uygulanan araştırma projelerinin sadece bilimsel konularda değil , aynı zamanda güncel sorunlarla da ilgili olması gerektiğini vurguladı.
B- Konuşmacıların toplantıda görüş birliğine vardığı gibi, son yıllarda üniversiteler tarafından yürütülen araştırma prıjeleri salt bilimsel konulardan çok, güncel sorunlarla ilgilidir.
C- Toplantıdaki pek çok konuşmacı, üniversitelered sürdürülen araştırma projelerinden bazılarının salt bilimsel konular yerine, güncel sorunlarla ilgili olması gerektiğini belirtti.
D- Toplantıdaki konuşmaların çoğu, son yıllarda üniversitelerce üslenilen bazı araştırma projelerinin salt bilimsel konulardan çok, güncel sorunlarla ilgili olduğunu belirtti.
E- Toplantıda söz alan pek çok konuşmacı, son yıllarda üniversitelerin yürüttüğü araştırma projelerinin bilimsel konularla olduğu kadar güncel sorunlarla da ilgili olduğunu belirtti.
42. Some years ago The German Constitutional Court decided by a 6 to 2 vote that no law could allow abortion in violation of the rights of the unborn.
A- Yıllar önce Alman Anayasa Mahkemesinin 2 ye karşı 6 oyla aldığı karara göre, hiç bir yasa doğmamış çocuğun haklarını hiçe sayarak kürtaja izin vermez.
B- Alman Anayasa Mahkemesinin birkaç yıl önce 2’ye karşı 6 oyla aldığı karara göre, doğmamış çocuğun haklarını ihlal etmek demek olan kürtaja hiçbir yasa izin vermez.
C- Birkaç yıl önce, Alman Anayasa Mahkemesi, hiçbir yasanın doğmamış çocuğun haklarına aykırı olarak kürtaja izin veremeyeceğine 2’ye karşı 6 oyla karar verdi.
D- Alman Anayasa Mahkemesi, doğmamış çocuğun haklarını ihlal etmek demek olan kürtaja hiç bir yasanın izin veremeyeceği görüşünü birkaç yıl önce 2’ye karşı 6 oyla değiştirdi.
E- Alman Anayasa Mahkemesi, birkaç yıl önce , hiçbir yasada kürtaja izin veremeyeceğine 2'ye karşı 6 oyla karar vererek , doğmamış çocuğun hakkının ihlal edilmesini engelledi.
Find English meaning of the given Turkish sentence
43. Sahra’nın yılda 10 kilometreye varan bir hızla güneye doğru genişlemekte olduğu bilimsel olarak ısbatlanmıştır.
A- Recent scientific investigations have revealed that the southerly movement of the Sahara remains at under 10 kilometres per year.
B- There is scientific evidence to suggest that the Sahara is expanding southwards at a rate of roughly 10 kilometres a year.
C- The rate at which the Sahara is expanding southwards at a rate of roughly 10 kilometres a year.
D- According to recent scientific data, The Sahara is moving in a southerly direction at a rate of just under 10 kilometres a year.
E- It has been scientifically established that the Sahara is expanding southwards at a rate of up to 10 kilometres a year.
44. Makalede, dünya tahıl üretiminin son yıllarda önemli ölçüde düşmeye başladığı vurgulanmaktadır.
A- In the article it is emphasized that the world grain production has begun to fall substantially in recent years.
B- From the article it is apparent that there has been a substantial fall in world grain production in recent decades.
C- It should be emphasised in the article that there has been a noticeable drop in world grain production during the last few years.
D- According to the article, a serious drop in world grain production only began a few years ago.
E- It is pointed out in the article that the substantial fall in the world grain production has begun in recent times.
45. “Gerçekçilik “, eleştiride kullanılan en belirsiz kavramlardan biridir; ancak bu onun çok sık kullanılmasını engellemez.
A- “Realism” is so vague a critical concept that it should only be used infrequently.
B- “Realism” is one of the vogues’ concepts used in criticism but that does not stop it from being frequently used.
C- “Realism” is a term that is frequently used in criticism but it is often wrongly used.
D- The vagueness of the term “realism” means that it is only infrequently used in a critical context.
E- The term “realism” is frequently used in criticism but with only a vague concept of what is actually means.
46. Aile ve akrabalık , genelde ilkel veya ilerlemiş olsun tüm insan topluluklarının temel gerçeğidir ve binlerce yıldan beri de hep böyle olmuştur.
A- In both primitive and advanced societies family and kinship, in general, have for thousands of years, been of basic importance.
B- For thousands of years now, the family and relatives have generally been basic realities in all human societies, both primitive and advanced.
C- During the last thousand years or so, the family and kinship generally have been among the basic realities of all human societies whether primitive or advanced.
D- Until the last thousand years or so, in both primitive and advanced societies family and kinship were usually regarded as basic elements of human existence.
E- Family and kinship, generally are basic realities in all-human societies whether primitive or advanced and have been so for thousands of years.
47. Gelişmiş ülkeler çok düşük nufus artış hızına sahip olsalar bile bunların az gelişmiş ülkelerdeki hızlı nufüs artışından etkilenmeyeceklerini söylemek yanlış olur.
A- Even if there were a drop in the population growth of developed countries one should not say that the developing countries with their rapidly expanding populations would be likely to be affected by it.
B- Even supposing that the developed countries had a very slight population growth, it wouldn’t be fair to suggest that the rapid population growth of underdeveloped countries couldn’t affect them.
C- A very slight drop in the population growth of developed countries means nothing in the face of the rapid increase in the populations of developing countries.
D- Even though developed countries have a very low rate of population growth, it would be wrong to say that they will not be affected by the rapid increase of population in underdeveloped countries.
E- It has been wrongly suggested that the rapid increase in the population of underdeveloped countries will have no effect on the slight decline in population in developed countries.
48. Sıtma tedavisinde kullanılan ilaçlar son derece önemli olsa da hastalığa neden olan sivrisineğin kontrolü çok daha önemlidir.
A- However effective the drugs used in the treatment of malaria may be, it is still important to control the mosquito that causes the disease.
B- Though the drugs used in the treatment of malaria are extremely important, the control of the mosquito which causes the disease is even more so.
C- If the mosquito that causes malaria could be controlled the drugs used in the treatment would cease to be important.
D- Since new drugs are extremely effective in the treatment of malaria, there is less need now to control the mosquito which carries the disease.
E- Control of the mosquito which carries malaria has proved far more effective than any of the drugs that have been used in its treatment.
49. Bugün yayınlanan raporda , dünya da cüzzamlı 15 milyon insanın büyük çoğunluğunun tropikal ülkelerde yaşadığı belirtilmektedir.
A- A report has been released today confirming that there are 15 million people in the world with leprosy most of whom live in tropical countries.
B- In the report to be released today, it is mentioned that there are fifteen million people in the world with leprosy and most of these live in tropical countries.
C- In the report released today, it is pointed out that of the 15 million people with leprosy in the world the great majority live in tropical countries.
D- In a report to be published today, it is confirmed that of the 15 million lepers in the world a slight majority live in tropical countries.
E- According to a report published today it seems that of the 15 million lepers in the world by far the majority are to be found in tropical countries.
50. İnsanlar, uygarkığın doğuşundan beri gökyüzünü incelemişlerdir ; ancak orada var olanların büyük çoğunluğu hala bilinmemektedir.
A- People have studied the sky since the drawn of the civilisation, yet the bulk of what is out there is still unknown.
B- If people had studied the sky throughout the civilized times, the bulk of what is out there would bow have been known.
C- People were studying the sky even before the drawn of civilisation but little was known about what was out there
D- A large portion of space remains unexplored though man has been interested in it since the dawn of civilisation.
E- The sky has been under observation ever since civilisation began, but not much is known about it.
51. Rapordan gelecek yüzyılda dünyada kişi başına düşecek olan su miktarının önemli ölçüde azalma olacağı açıkça anlaşılır.
A- One may conclude from the report that during the next century the average amount of water consumed per head of the population in the world will have to be reduced.
B- It is most clearly in the report that in the next century the crop in the amount of water needed per head in the world will be enormous.
C- The report makes it clear that during the next century the amount of water available per head in the world will hardly be adequate.
D- The report makes the point that in the next century there will have to be a sharp drop in the amount of water made available per head of the population in the world.
E- It can be clearly understood from the report that during the next century there will be a considerable drop in the amount of water available per head in the world.
52. Yönetim, yeni hisse senetlerinin, rayiç piyasa değerinden % 20 daha düşük olarak fiyatlandırılmasını uygun görmüştür.
A- The board has proposed the sale of new shares on the market at a price 20 % less than their current value.
B- The management has suggested that the new shares be issued at a price 20 % lower than the present market value.
C- The management has agreed that the new shares be priced 20 % below their current market value.
D- The board has announced that the price of the shares currently coming onto the market should be reduced by 20 %.
E- The managing board has accepted the pricing of the new shares, which will be 20 % down on their actual value on the market.
Which one best completes
53. We all know that learning is important, ……………… ? A dictionary might tell you that learning is acquiring knowledge through experience and study. A teacher might tell you that it is memorising what he wants you to know for an examination. Your boss might tell you that it is mastery of the task you are hired to do. A psychologist might tell you that it is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to past experience. Obviously, learning takes place in many ways and forms.
A- How is it managed
B- What exactly do you mean
C- Yet can one depend on it
D- But what exactly is it
E- Do you think it can be mastered
54. Someone once said that there are three sides to every questionable issue; your side, my side, and the right side. ……………. . For instance, the reactions to the issue of abortion are usually divided into two basic viewpoints; for and against. But the issue is not that simple. Other questions begin to surface, which turn the issue into a complex one and make it necessary for us to look at it from many sides.
A- Unknowingly people become conditioned to speak out prejudice
B- In truth, there may be many sides, depending upon the issue itself
C- As we mature, our beliefs are also shapes both directly and indirectly by the media.
D- Consequently our thinking process becomes overruled by others’ opinions
E- Even when we think we are acting as individual by rejecting the ideas of one group, we often just accepting the idea of another
55. Some sociologists are concerned that America is no longer “ a melting pot” but “ a salad bowl”. Unlike most earlier immigrants who were willing to learn English and wanted to “melt” into American life, many of today’s immigrants do not see the need. ………….? How will all this affect America’s future?
A- Why did most European immigrants settle in the cities rather than on farms?
B- What was city life like for most immigrants
C- What changes can we expect in the make-up of America’ population by the year 2000
D- What hardship did the early immigrants face when they arrived in America
E- How far back can an American trace his roots
56. ………. . The faltering economy they inherited was now under additional pressure from those newly unemployed, including the million-man army of the former regime. There were critical shortages of foreign exchange and gold, much of which had been stolen in the final days of the war. There were also at least two million new refugees, nearly 10% of the population. Virtually, the country was in a stole of total bankruptcy.
A- The end of the war in Vietnam brought massive problems to the new leaders of the country.
B- In the first place, all industry was nationalised by the new Vietnamese government
C- One unexpected problem facing the new government was continuing military activity
D- One solution to the urban problems facing Vietnam was continuing military activity
E- In their first months in power Vietnam’s new leaders succeeded in persuading hundreds of thousands of people to move back to their farms.
57. Gathering information on a possible adversary or adversaries is only the start of the intelligence process. The raw material, once in hand, must be drawn together, analysed, correlated and evaluated before it becomes useful knowledge. …………… . From this appraisal, which points to his most likely course of action, the target state can chart a course of action best designed to meet the developing situation.
A- The ethics of civil intelligence operations have long been debated
B- At this stage there emerges an estimate of the adversary’s intentions and of his ability to achieve them
C- But the richest source is usually the secret agent, who is always a highly skilled and well-trained professional
D- Intelligence findings are, therefore, usually classified and limited in circulation
E- In recent decades, technology has enormously lengthened the reach and sharpened the penetration of intelligence
58. In the 1990s cancer was nearly always fatal; by the 1930s one out of five cancer patients was saved; by 1975 treatment s was successful in one out every three cancer patients. ……………. .
A- New evidence suggests that the highest risk for long cancer occurs in asbestos workers who smoke
B- In deed everyone knows that cancer refers to a group of over 100 different diseases
C- Today scientists and physicians believe that half of all cancer patients can be saved if present knowledge is applied promptly in every case
D- Rehabilitation of the cancer patients has become an important new concern for social workers
E- The aim of cancer rehabilitation is to help the patient lead as normal a life as possible
Find the meaningfully unfit sentence
59. (I) While most early European immigrants to America were farmers, many city dwellers came to the new land as well. (II) These new comers were attracted to the bustling urban centres. (III) As a result, American cities expanded enormously. (IV) The history of the United States is filled with accounts of people who came from all over the world to settle here.(V) New York, for example which had a population of only sixty thousand in 1600, grew to a city of more than one million people in 1860
A- I B- II C- III D- IV E- V
60. (I) As we live and grow we learn the culture of society in which we live. (II) Sociologists tell us that the most significant elements of culture that we must learn are values, norms and roles. (III) While values are rather general norms are quite specific. (IV) A collection of the norms connected with a particular position or activity in a society is called a role. (V) History shows us that disagreements over vital political issues always create violent conflicts within a society.
A- I B- II C- III D- IV E- V
61. (I) Getting through a day without being exposed to the media would be unthinkable. (II) Both directly and indirectly the media have a profound effect on our daily lives. (III) What we eat, what we buy, what we do, even what we think is influenced by the media. (IV) Yet, the question is whether what the media provides us with, can always be good and revealing. (V) According to one study, 64 % of the American public turns on television for most of its news.
A- I B- II C- III D- IV E- V
62. (I) Writing in the 1930s, J.M. Keynes was mainly concerned with unemployment. (II) For him, the question was why is persisted. (III) Since 1945 the twin objectives of economic growth and full employment have been the primary concern of developed countries throughout the world. (IV) His own answer to this was that employment was determined by the level of output, and this was determined by demand. (V) Therefore, the level of employment could be regulated by managing the level demand.
A- I B- II C- III D- IV E- V
63. (I) From the fourteenth century onwards, especially in Italy, scholars, poets, and artists began to take a new interest in learning. (II) In nearly all the city-states of Northern Italy the power had been seized by certain great families. (III) Instead of studying chiefly theology and the writing of the medieval philosophers, they now turned to the philosophers and began to study them intensively. (IV) The minds of men were now set free and they began to think as they pleased. (V) This new learning soon spread to the rest of Europe and the “Renaissance” was well under way.
A- I B- II C- III D- IV E- V
64. (I) By about 3500 BC there had developed in Egypt and Mesopotamia a highly and advanced social and economic life. (II) Copper and Bronze were being used, although on a limited scale, and trading contacts with other countries had been established.(III) It is the opinion of the archaeologists that civilisation first developed in the Middle East. (IV) Many of these contracts were with Syria, which, lying between Egypt and Mesopotamia, had participated at an early date in the general advance of material and cultural development. (V) Moreover, Syria was endowed with a number of resources that were looking in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
A- I B- II C- III D- IV E- V
Find the suitable statement for the given position
65. Someone who is known to be rather unreliable in money matters comes to you asking for a loan. You refuse to give him a loan but want to do this in a kindly manner, making use of your family commitments. You say;
A- I do wish I could have helped out but I have to pay the children’s school expenses this month and there will be nothing left over after that.
B- Yes, of course I will help you out; but you will have to pay me back at the beginning of next month.
C- I thought I’d told you that I would never again lend you any money.
D- My father would be very angry if he knew what I was doing.
E- Why don’t you ask your family to help you out? Surely they will.
66. A friend has had a bad cough for several months. You think it is high time she consulted a doctor about it and you decide to impress on her the need to take the matter seriously. You say;
A- Do please go to the chemist’s and get a bottle of cough mixture.
B- You know as well as I do that a cough can be a sign of something more serious. Go and get it checked.
C- Do what I do. Drink a glass of fresh grapefruit juice every morning. I’m sure it will do you good.
D- The weather is getting warmer now so perhaps your cough will go away.
E- I think you are coughing a bit less these days but I still think you should.
67. There have been last minute changes in flight arrangements so you phone your son at his office to let him know of these and save him fruitless drive to the airport. You speak to his secretary who informs you that your son is at a meeting but that she can get a message through to him. You say;
A- Please make sure that he is there at the airport to meet me as arranged.
B- I think he should know that, unfortunately the holiday has had to be cancelled.
C- Please explain that the London-Amsterdam flights are fully booked for the next six weeks.
D- I just want to remind him that he promised to meet me at the airport this evening.
E- Just tell him there has been a change in the programme and I shall not be arriving this evening.
68. A friend’s child has knocked over a vase and broken it. They are both very sorry and you want to comfort them and stop them feeling bad about it. You say;
A- That was one of the more expensive items in the collection
B- What a naughty child you have! I think you are to blame for the damage he has done
C- Well, actually I am sorry because it was given to me by my grandmother
D- There is no harm done. Actually, that’s a vase that I have never really cared for
E- I should have kept such a valuable vase in a safe place
69. When a friend phones and asks, “ Where were you last night? “ you suddenly realise you’d promised to go round and see her but hadn’t done so. She’s a close friend and you are always open and honest with each other. You say;
A- I worked late at the office .Why?
B- Oh dear! I simply forgot. I’m so sorry.
C- I was just about to phone you about here.
D- I thought you were coming round here.
E- That’s very kind of you. I should have let you know earlier
70. There is a problem with the car, and you want the mechanic at the repair place you always use to start work on it immediately though there are other jobs that he is working on . He is reluctant. You really do all you can to make him agree. You say;
A- My neighbour sent me here and he is a very good customer of yours.
B- I know this is the first time I have come to you but I’ll come regularly if you help me now.
C- Come on! I am a good customer and don’t ask many favours.
D- It really is of vital importance that you fix it for me immediately.
E- You did a bad job of fixing it last time I brought it in. That’s why there is a problem now.
Find the one best completes the conversation
71. James: I’ll see you at Murray’s lecture.
Nigel : I’m not sure that I’m going.
Nigel : Then in that case I’ll.
A- He knows a lot but can’t make anything interesting.
B- What’s he lecturing on now?
C- I wouldn’t it. I didn’t feel I had to.
D- You must, I saw him yesterday and he is expecting us both.
E- Neither am I. We’ll decide tomorrow.
72. Mrs: Martin: I have just been reading an article on cosmetic industry
Mr. Martin : I don’t want to hear about it. It’s just a waste of money.
Mrs. Martin : …………………………………..
Mr. Martin : Perhaps not. But that doesn’t affect my opinion
A- Ten years from now you may be more interested
B- A lot of people regard it as money well spent
C- Not everyone agrees with you there.
D- Mrs: Sutton certainly looks years younger.
E- I’ll leave it here and you can read it.
73. Richard : Are the police still detaining him?
Malcolm: Yes, I’m afraid they are. But I just can’t believe he’d do a thing like that.
Richard : ………………………………………
Malcolm: So do I.
A- Of course he wouldn’t. I just wish we could find a way of helping him.
B- I’m not so sure. I don’t really like him.
C- Why do you say that?
D- Do you suppose there will be a trial?
E- As far as I know there is not much evidence against him.
74. Alan: Where’s your computer? You do have one, don’t you?
Mark : ………………………………………….
Alan: Will that take long?
Mark : I don’t think so; they’ll give me a ring when it is ready.
A- Yes, over there. I was told to take it out of the sun.
B- No, I have given it to my brother.
C- Well, I used it so rarely I decided to get rid of it.
D- Not any longer. I didn’t seem able to learn how to use it
E- Yes, but at present it’s being repaired.
75. Mr.Wentworth: I hope you have kept the afternoon her appointment.
Mr: Wentworth : But that cuts right into the afternoon and you know I have next month's schedule to plan out.
Secretary: I had no choice. It is the manager who wants to see you.
A- Well, you did tell Mr. Bainridge he could leave early.
B- No, of course I didn’t forget.
C- I thought I had to keep tomorrow free.
D- Not quite; you’ll be busy between three tiny and four o’clock
E- All callers have been told you are out of town.
76. Clive : Can you recommend a good restaurant? My usual place is fully booked.
Clive : That’s not too important .It is a business lunch. I want somewhere where we can talk.
A- What sort of a price range do you have in mind?
B- What’s the occasion? A family get together?
C- Is that where we ate together the other evening?
D- Have you tried the new fish restaurant on Exetor Road?
E- I’m afraid I can’t help: I so rarely dine out.
Find the closest in meaning
77. If it hadn’t been for the wind the fire would never have spread so fast.
A- Unless the wind develops the fire is hardly likely to spread fast.
B- Even without the wind, the fire would have spread at such a speed.,
C- It was the wind that caused the fire to spread at such a speed.
D- Had there been a wind the fire would have spread even faster.
E- The force of the wind affected the way the fire spread.
78. We will never be able to get all these exhibits dated and labelled for the opening of the museum unless we get a lot of assistance.
A- It would help us to finish the dating and labelling of the exhibits if the museum is not opened for a while.,
B- With just a little extra assistance we shall be able to get all these exhibits dated and labelled before the museum is opened.
C- The opening of the museum does not depend on whether or not we can get all these exhibits dated and labelled.
D- We are going to need an awful lot of help if we are to date and label these exhibits in time for the opening of the museum.
E- Once the museum is open we can easily get plenty of help in the dating and labelling of the exhibits.
79. There is no point in learning several languages if you are not going to have the opportunity to use them.
A- You shouldn’t try to learn many languages except the ones which are spoken internationally.
B- Unless you are going to be in a position to use them, learning several languages would just be a waste of time.
C- There are several languages that are everywhere in use and these are the ones to learn.
D- People used to learn several languages even though, they had little opportunity to use them.
E- Certain languages which few people know are actually well worth learning.
80. He really does not mind who he works for, but the pay has to be good.
A- It’s the money that interests him, not the type of work of his employer.
B- With him, it is the money that matters, not the type of work.
C- To his way of thinking, the job should be better paid.
D- He is the sort who will do anything for money.
E- He will work for just about anyone so long as they pay him well.
81. We got caught in a traffic jam so were among the last to arrive.
A- The late arrivers all put the blame on the heavy traffic.
B- The traffic was so heavy that nearly everyone arrived late.
C- Most people got there before us as we were held up by traffic.
D- The roads were so congested that it is a wonder anyone got there on time.
E- There was such congestion on the roads that I thought we never would get there.
82. It’s not fair to put all the blame on him; he’s not the only one at fault.
A- It wouldn’t be right to punish those who, like him, weren’t involved.
B- He deserves to be punished, but the others don'’.
C- Only the ones who were involved should be punished.
D- The fault is his only; so let him take the blame
E- He doesn’t deserve to be blamed for everything; there were others involved.
The unfavourable effects of cigarette smoking on the heart have frequently been described, but the exact basis for these effects has not been clarified. Some investigators believe nicotine to the culprit, and there has been some experimental work in animals indicating that large doses of nicotine in conjunction with cholesterol feeding and vitamin D could produce a disease of the arteries resembling that seen in humans. An alternative explanation has been offered by another scientists who have pointed to possible role carbon monoxide being inhaled with the cigarette smoke.
83. It is pointed out in the passage that nicotine ………………………. .
A- is considered by some to be one of the reasons why smoking has an adverse affect on the heart.
B- is the only harmful factor in relation smoking
C- affects animals more seriously than humans.
D- has been established as more dangerous than carbon monoxide for smokers.
E- has an adverse effect only upon the arteries.
84. According to the passage, studies into the adverse effects of smoking ………… .
A- have ruled out any relationship between smoking and cholesterol levels in humans.
B- have not been able to establish for certain whether or not carbon monoxide could be a factor.
C- have so far not raised any controversial opinions
D- have shown that vitamin D reduces nicotine in the body.
E- Indicate that nicotine and carbon monoxide may be only minor factors.
85. The main concern of the passage is to ………………
A- describe certain experiments on animals relating to the effect of carbon monoxide
B- emphasise the role nicotine and vitamin D play in heart disease.
C- demonstrate that the adverse effects of smoking on the heart are still under debate
D- compare the effects on the heart of nicotine and carbon monoxide.
E- give an account the research work concerning animal diseases
Agriculture remains the most crucial area for development; here it seems that the most intractable problems of resistance to change exist. One may argue that scientific training in agriculture by itself is unlikely to have any market impact on agriculture output. Any attempt at vocational training in agriculture presupposes that a meaningful structure of incentive exist for the individual farmer to increase his output, improve his techniques and expand his range of activities. Without such incentives and opportunities agricultural education can have little impact.
86. The author is of the opinion that improvement in the field of agriculture…………………….. .
A- cannot be achieved through vocational training
B- can easily be realised
C- have already led to good results.
D- are absolutely vital for productivity.
E- have largely been confined to technology.
87. We can understand from the passage that the agricultural community ………………. .
A- tends to disregard the problems of the individual farmer.
B- is eager for more vocational training.
C- is fully aware of the long-term benefits of scientific training.
D- has already begun to benefit from the improved techniques.
E- is not the one that welcomes change
88. The author concludes that vocational training in agriculture ……………….. .
A- will be an effective way of eliminating resistance to change in society.
B- will provide farmers with a wide range of opportunities.
C- will be futile unless it is backed up with various incentives
D- in regarded as priority for social development
E- has often been underestimated by various authorities.
Some decades ago there was hardly such a subject as the economics of the education. Today it is one of the most rapidly growing branches of economics. Together with health economics, it makes up the core of the economics of human resources, a field of inquiry which in the last few years has been silently revolutionising such traditional subjects as grown economics, labour economics, international trade, and public finance. Consequently, the economics of education with its concept of human investment has rapidly transformed large areas of orthodox economics.
89. The author points out that the term ”the economics of education” …………… .
A- has only come into use in very recent years
B- has for decades been under discussion among economists
C- is of little significance in orthodox economics
D- has only been accepted in educational circles
E- is gradually disappearance from economic writings
90. According to the passage, the economics of education ……………….. .
A- is not connected in any way with investment in man
B- relates to a very narrow sphere of human activity
C- has had no impact whatsoever on other areas of orthodox economics
D- has today come into the forefront of economic thinking
E- is one of the earliest branches of general economics
91. The author suggests that the earlier branches of economics ……………….. .
A- have grown steadily in importance
B- have been substantially modified through the introduction of economics of human resources
C- have been virtually unaffected by health economics or the economics of human resources
D- gave great importance to the idea of human investment
E- constituted the essence of the economics of human resources
Tigers grow to lengths of ten feet or more and can be bigger than the largest lion. They have immense strength. They clutch their prey to them holding on with their claws, and depend on the crashing bite of their powerful jaws to and the struggle. They swim very well and can often be seen splashing about in water on very hot days, since they apparently suffer from the heat. When the air is chilly, however, they avoid wet and damp vegetation. They can climb but don’t approach the leopard’s ability in this. They can negotiate treacherous rock areas but generally prefer to stay on level ground. They are not as well equipped with senses as one might expect. They apparently depend on their hearing while hunting. Their eyesight is not particularly good, and they seem unable to spot prey until it moves.
92. It is clear from the passage that tigers ……….... .
A- rely on their huge claws alone to catch and kill their prey
B- are the most skilful climbers of all wild animals
C- are sensitive to significant variations in temperature
D- closely resemble lions as regards size speed and strength
E- rely heavily upon their eyesight in location and catching prey
93. As is mentioned in the passage, a flat terrain ..……. .
A- is usually the favoured habitat of the tiger
B- rather than rocky cliffs gives tigers better opportunities for hiding
C- provides camouflage for leopards
D- is usually wet, so tigers prefer higher levels
E- usually has thicker vegetation which shelters more prey
94. From the passage we learn that, contrary to what is generally thought ,………………… .
A- once a prey starts to move a tiger can rarely catch it
B- hearing is the least developed sense of the tiger
C- the leopard’s hunting ability is far behind that of the tiger
D- rocky areas are invariably avoided by all wild animals
E- the tiger’s senses are not particularly well developed
Scientists have long sought ways to define and measure human intelligence. And write theories of intelligence have grown more sophisticated since 1800s when some believed mental abilities were determined by the size of a person’s head researchers still do not agree about certain fundamental principles of human thought. They therefore continue to debate such basic questions as whether heredity or the environment is more important in forming intelligence.
95. As we learn from the passage, the age-old controversy about whether intelligence depends upon heredity or the environment ……………… .
A- is now being ignored as it is seen to be fruitless
B- was finally resolved in the 1800s
C- has only recently become a subject for serious research
D- does not seem to have ceased yet
E- was more sophisticated in the 19th century than it is today
96. According to the passage, in the early nineteenth century, some people held the view that a person’s mental capacity ………… .
A- could never be changed
B- depended on the head size
C- was purely heredity
D- was completely shaped by the environment
E- fundamental to his character
97. One may conclude from the passage that a full understanding of the nature ant the capacity of human intelligence ……….. .
A- can only be achieved by exceptionally sophisticated minds
B- has finally been achieved by modern scientists
C- is sure to be realised within the next few years
D- is not likely to be achieved in the near future
E- will emerge through theoretical rather than experimental studies
The novelist E.L. Doctorow is best known for mixing fiction with historical fact by placing his stories within the framework of public events. In fact, by integrating the front-page news of 20th century America with the lives of his characters. Doctorow gives readers the “ feel “ of an era combining the unusual and the commonplace. His latest novel, World’s fair shows how the events of the turbulent 1930s helped mould the sensibilities of his young protagonist.
98. It is explained in the passage that Doctorow’s novel World’s Fair ………….. .
A- describes the damaging effects of the turbulent 1930s on the sensitive young protagonist
B- is actually a full historical account of the great changes that took place in the 1930s
C- demonstrate his theories concerning the relationship between man and his society
D- fails to give his readers a “feel “ of the 1930s in America
E- gives an account of how the thoughts and feeling of the main character are shaped by the period in which he
99. From the passage we learn that a blend of fiction and history……………… .
A- has not always been Doctorow’s primary concern
B- is deliberately avoided by Doctorow in his most recent novel
C- is striking feature of Doctorow’s writing
D- is commonly used by contemporary American writers, including Doctorow himself
E- is never to be found in the traditional novel
100. We see in the passage that Doctorow’s purpose in bringing together in his novels the usual and the extraordinary …………. .
A- is to build up a concerning picture of a period
B- did not achieve the result he aimed for in World's ’Fair
C- has been frequently criticised by his readers
D- has not been properly appreciated except in the case of World’s Fair
E- has been shared by other 20th century American novelists
KPDS MAYIS97 SORULARI
1.E 2.B 3.A 4.B 5.C 6.A 7.D 8.E 9.C 10.D
11.B 12.E 13.A 14.C 15.D 16.C 17.E 18.A 19.B 20.E
21.D 22.A 23.C 24.B 25.E 26.A 27.B 28.D 29.C 30.C
31.E 32.B 33.D 34.A 35.D 36.C 37.A 38.B 39.C 40.E
41.D 42.C 43.E 44.A 45.B 46.E 47.B 48.B 49.C 50.A
51.E 52.B 53.D 54.B 55.C 56.A 57.B 58.C 59.D 60.E
61.E 62.C 63.B 64.C 65.A 66.B 67.E 68.D 69.B 70.C
71.D 72. C 73.A 74.E 75.D 76.A 77.C 78.D 79.B 80.E
81.C 82.E 83.A 84.B 85.C 86.D 87.E 88.C 89.A 90.D
91.B 92.C 93.A 94.E 95.D 96.B 97.D 98.E 99.C 100.A