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‘âbid: one who worships much, devoted
adâ: performing namâz in its appointed time
adab: (pl. âdâb) there is a special adab in doing everything. The adab of doing something means to follow the conditions necessary for doing it in the best way.
adhân: call to prayer
afdal: more meritorious
âkhirat: next world
Ahl as-Sunnat or Ahl as-Sunna (wa’l-Jamâ’a): the true pious Muslims who follow as-Sahâbat al-kirâm. These are called Sunnî Muslims. A Sunnî Muslim adapts himself to one of the four Madhhabs. These Madhhabs are Hanafî, Mâlikî, Shâfi’î and Hanbalî
âisa: old woman, older than 55 for Hanafî, 70 for Mâlikî
‘alaihissalâm: peace be upon Him
‘âlim: scholar, savant
‘Alîm: the Omniscient. One of the 99 Beautiful Names of Allâhu ta’âlâ
Allâhu ta’âlâ: Allah The Most High
Âmantu: the prayer in which all six tenets of belief in Islam are declared
Amr-i-bi-l-ma’rûf: Teaching, preaching, and commending the Islamic commandments
‘aql-i salîm: the wisdom which is salîm never goes wrong and never errs. It never does anything to necessitate repentance. It does not make mistakes in the things it considers. It always follows the course of actions that are good and that turn out good. It thinks properly, and finds the right way. Its deeds are always correct. This wisdom existed in Prophets only. They were successful in every activity they had started. They would not do anything that would make them repent or that would harm them. The one which is close to theirs is the wisdom of the Sahâba, of the Tâbi’ûn, of the Taba-i tâbi’ûn, and of the religious imâms. Theirs was a wisdom that was suitable for the rules of the Sharî’at.
‘aql-i saqîm: the wisdom that is saqîm is quite the opposite. It errs in its acts and thoughts, which always incur sorrow, repentance,harm and trouble.
‘Arafât: a mount near Mecca, the open space located 24 kilometers north of Mecca.
‘Arsh: the end of matter bordering the seven skies and the Kursî which is outside the seventh sky and inside the ‘Arsh.
Ashâb-i kirâm: A person who saw Hadrat Muhammad at least once when he was alive, is called a ‘Sahâbî’. It goes without saying that a Sahâbî is a Muslim. Ashâb is the plural form of Sahâbî. All the Sahâbîs are called ‘Ashâb-i Kirâm’.
‘âqilbâligh: sane and pubert, who reach the age of maturity
‘aql-i selîm: wisdom which never goes wrong
A'ûdhu: A’ûdhu billâhi min-ash-shaytânirrajîm
awrat parts: parts on one’s body which one must not open or show others and it is forbidden for others to see outside or during namâz, parts of the body that men and women have to cover, both during namâz and elsewhere. In Hanafî and Shâfi’î Madhhabs a man’s awrat parts for namâz and at all times are between his navel and lower parts of his knees. The knees are awrat in Hanafî and the navel is awrat in Shâfi’î. All parts of free women, except their palms and faces, including their wrists, outer parts of their hands, hanging parts of their hair and under their feet are awrat for namâz, in Hanafî. There are also valuable books saying that outer parts of hands are not awrat. When alone and not performing namâz, it is fard [obligatory] for women to cover between their knees and navels, wâjib [almost obligatory] to cover their backs and bellies, and adab [an act for which there is blessing, if omitted there is no sin] to cover their other parts. It is harâm in all the four Madhhabs for women to show nâmahram men [not one of the eighteen men whom the Sharî’at has prescribed as a woman’s close relatives] and female non-Muslims their bodies other than their faces and inside and outside their hands, and for these people to look at them.” In the Shâfi’î Madhhab, on the other hand, their faces and hands are awrat (and therefore must be covered) in the presence of men who are nâmahram to them.
âyat: a Qur’anic verse, a verse of the Qur’ân al-karîm; al-âyat al-karîma.
Âyat-al-kursî: one of the âyats in the Qur’ân. It explains the greatness of Allâhu ta’âlâ and the fact that His power is infinite.
barakât: abundance, blessing
bid’at: heresy, a heretical conduct or belief
bughd-i fillah: to dislike for the sake of Allah.
dalk: to rub the washed limbs gently with the palm or with a towel
darûrat: 1- strong necessity, a samâwî (involuntary) reason that forces one to do something, that is, a reason which happens beyond one’s will, is called a darûrat 2- an involuntary excuse such as the danger of dying or losing a limb, or severe pain. These excuses make it mubâh [allowed] to perform an act that is normally harâm [forbidden] in Islâm.
dhikr: to mention the name of Allâhu ta’âlâ through the heart, to remember, phrases of reciting the name of Allâhu ta’âlâ
effendi: former Turkish title of respect
fard: obligatory, an obligation clearly commanded by Allâhu ta’âlâ in the Qur’ân al-karîm
fâsid: null, invalid
Fâtiha: first sûra in the Qur’ân al-kerîm. It is recited during every standing position when performing namâz. It is also recited for the souls of dead Muslims.
fiqh: knowledge dealing with what Muslims should do and should not do, actions, deeds, ’ibâdât. Teachings pertaining to religious practices
fitna: mischief, upheaval, instigation
fitra: alms that must be given when the month of Ramadân is over
ghayb: the unseen. Things that are not communicated by Islam, by calculations or by experiments are called ghayb (unknown).
ghayr-i muakkad: unemphatic, omitted from time to time by our blessed Prophet
ghusl: ritual washing
hadîth-i sharîf: blessed words of Rasûlullah [the Messenger of Allah] “sall-Allâhu ‘alaihi wa sallam”
hadji: Muslim pilgrim
hadrat: title of respect used before the names of great people like prophets and Islamic scholars
hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca
halâl: permitted in Islam
harâm: prohibited, not permitted in Islam. Also means prohibition.
hâshâ: Never! This exclamation is used before saying a blasphemy.
hashamas: beach shorts which are long enough to come down beyond the knees
hawâ: the things which the nafs loves, desires
hidâya: the right way of Islâm
hubb-i fillah: to love for the sake of Allah.
‘ibâdât: acts of worship
ifrât: too much of something
iftâr: the act of breaking a fast. Fasting is done for thirty days in Ramadân. Iftâr is done when the sun sets.
ihrâm: a special garment worn during the rites of pilgrimage in Mecca
ijmâ’: the Sahâbat al-kirâm’s and the Tâbi’ûn’s common act or unanimous comment on an affair; such unanimity or consensus.
ijtihâd: (meaning or conclusion drawn by a mujtahid through) endeavouring to understand the hidden meaning in an âyat or a hadîth.
ikhlâs: sincerety, doing everything only to please Allâhu ta’âlâ
ilâh: god [God means ma’bûd (that which, or who, is, or is to be, worshipped). Anything which is worshipped is called a god. The name of Allâhu ta’âlâ is Allah, not God. There is no ilâh (god) besides Allâhu ta’âlâ. It would be a very vile mistake to say ‘God’ instead of ‘Allah’.]
‘ilm-i hâl book: a book written for the religiously non-educated people and that briefly and clearly describes the knowledge of kalâm (îmân [belief]), morals and fiqh which everybody should know and do.
‘ilm-i tasawwuf: it explains the things to be done or avoided with the heart, and the ways to purify the heart and the soul. This is also called ‘ilm-i akhlâq or ‘ilm-i ikhlâs.]
Imâm: (pl. a’imma) 1-Profound savant, Imâm-al-Madhhab, leader, founder of a
Madhhab; twelve a’imma (imâms), three male members of the Ahl-i bayt and their nine successors; Imâm-i a’zam (the greatest leader), title of Abû Hanîfa, leader of the Hanafî Madhhab. 2- Leader in public salât (namâz in jamâ’at).
imsâk: fajr, the time when fasting begins
iqâmat: the words recited while standing before beginning one of the five daily fard prayers
irâda-i juz’iyya: partial will
ishrâq: the time when the lower edge of the Sun is as high as the length of a spear from the line of the apparent horizon
isrâf: spending wastefully
istighfâr: begging Allah for His forgiveness
istihâda: flux of blood from a woman other than catamenia and lochia; excuse
istikhâra: see salât of istikhâra
i’tiqâd: the tenets of belief
‘izzat: superiority, honor, glory
izâr: an outer garment worn below the waist
jâiz: permitted, permissible
jamâ’at: a congregation of Muslims who perform namâz together adapting themselves to the movements of the imâm, the person who is staying in the front
janâbat: the state of being junub
Janâb-i Haqq: Allâhu ta’âlâ
Kâ’ba: the big structure in the great mosque in Mecca
Kalima-i shahâdat: “Ashhadu an lâ ilâha ill-Allah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ’abduhû wa rasûluh.” It means: “There is no ilâh (being to be worshipped) except Allah; and Muhammad (‘alaihis-salâm) is His born slave and His Messenger whom He has sent to (guide) all humanity.”
Kalimat at-tawhîd: the phrase ‘Lâ ilâha ill-Allah Muhammadun Rasûl-Allah.
karâhat time: the time wherein it is not permissible to perform namâz
karâmat: wonders which Allaha ta’âlâ creates outside His law of causation through the hands of His Awliyâ [dear slaves].
khair: good, goodness
khatm: to read the entire Qur’ân al-karîm
khutba: sermon, the speech made in the mosque by the îmâm during Friday prayer or ’Iyd prayer
kufr al-juhûdî: also known as kufr al-inâdî, becoming a kâfir [disbeliever] knowingly, obstinately
leave a namâz to qadâ: to postpone a namâz till after its prescribed time is over
madhhab: all of what a profound ’âlim [scholar] of (especially) fiqh (usually one of the four — Hanafî, Shafi’î, Mâlikî, Hanbalî) or îmân (one of the two, namely Ash’arî, Mâturîdî) communicated.
make jam’: to perform the early and late afternoon prayers or the evening and night prayers one immediately after the other within the time prescribed for either one of them
make khilâl: to comb with fingers, insert one or more fingers to wash or moisten, takhlîl.
make niyyat: to intend by heart
make qadâ of: to make up
makrûh: improper, disliked or abstained by the Prophet
makrûh tahrîmî: makrûh with much stress, it is close to harâm
makrûh tanzîhî: makrûh of a lesser degree
mandûb: an act for which there is thawâb [blessing] and if omitted there is no sin
ma’rûf: good acts approved by Islâm
masah: rubbing one’s wet hands (on one’s masts, which are soft, soleless, and waterproof shoes that cover the feet) while performing an ablution
masbûk: a person who has not caught up with the imâm in the first rak’at
masts: waterproof shoes covering the part of the foot which is fard to wash (in ablution)
mazî: see mazy
mazy: (also mazî) a few drops of white fluid liquid that comes out when one is aroused
Mi’râj: the Prophet’s ascent to Heaven
Mîzân: there will be a Mîzân ‘balance’ for weighing deeds and conduct. It does not resemble worldly balances.
muakkad: emphatic, practised regularly by our blessed Prophet
mubâh: permissible; a thing, action permitted in Islâm; an act neither ordered nor prohibited
mufsid: an act which makes a worship invalid
mu’jiza: miracles for prophets
munazzah: free from any unworthy thing
Mushaf: It is the state of the Qur'an collected between two covers with the style as starting from the chapter Fâtiha and ending with the chapter Nâs.
mustahab: an act for which there is thawâb (blessing) and if omitted there is no sin
muwâlât: quickness, to wash the limbs one right after another
Muzdalifa: the area between the city of Mecca and ‘Arafât
nafs: a negative force within humans that prompts them to do evil
nafs-i ammâra: headstrong nafs
Nahy-i-ani-l-munkar: Admonishing, warning against the Islamic prohibitions
najâsat: substances which Islâm prescribes as dirty
najs: religiously dirty
nâ-mahram: not one of the eighteen women whom the Sharî’at has prescribed as a man’s close relatives, and vice versa
namâz: ritual prayer
nikâh: marriage contract made in accordance with Islam
nûr: light, halo.
qadâ: make-up, to postpone a namâz till after its prescribed time is over. To make qadâ of a namâz means to perform it after its prescribed time. A namaz of qadâ is the one which is performed after its prescribed time.
qa’da-i akhîra: last sitting in namâz
qawma: standing upright and motionless after ruku’
qibla: the direction a Muslim turns when performing namâz, the direction pointing to Kâ’ba
qirâat: standing and reciting the Qur’ân when performing namâz; recitation
qiyâm: standing position in namâz
qiyâs: (conclusion drawn by a mujtahid through) likening or comparing a matter not clearly stated in the Nass [âyats and hadîths] and ijmâ’ to a similar one stated clearly.
Qurbân: 1- Sacrifice, 2- the animal to be slaughtered
rak’at: units of namâz each of which comprises the actions of standing, bowing and two times prostration. Most prayers of namâz consist of two or four rak’ats. One of them contains three rak’ats.
Rasûlullah: the Prophet of Allâhu ta’âlâ, Muhammad ‘alaihissalâm
rukn: recitation of an âyat, the rukû’, the two sajdas and sitting in the last rak’ât are each a rukn
ruku’: bowing by putting hands on the knees
sahûr: the meal which is eaten towards dawn before beginning the fast
sajda-i sahw: two sajdas (prostrations) done as soon as namâz is over in order to have some errors that may have been done while performing namâz forgiven.
sajda-i tilâwat: prostration after the recital of certain verses in the Qur’ân al-karîm
sahîh: 1- Valid, lawful; 2- A kind of hadîth. Kinds of hadîth are explained in the sixth chapter of the second fascicle of Endless Bliss.
salâm: 1- greeting, 2- saying “Assalâm-u ‘alaikum wa rahmat-ullah” at the end of a namâz
salât: prayer, namâz,
salât of istikhâra: a prayer performed to seek Allahu ta’âlâ’s guidance when one is unsure about a decision
salawat: the prayer upon saying or hearing the blessed name of Hadrat Muhammad “sallallâhu ‘alaihi wa sallam”
sâlih: pious, devoted
shalwar: baggy trousers
sultân: Muslim ruler in the past
sunnat: act, thing, though not commanded by Allâhu ta’âlâ, done and liked by the Prophet (‘alaihissalâm) as an ’ibâda; there is thawâb if done, but no sin if omitted, yet it is a sin if continually omitted and disbelief if despised.
sûra(t): a chapter of the Qur’ân al-karîm
taannî: opposite of hastiness
ta’dîl-i arkân: to be still as long as to say ‘Subhânallah’
tafrît: too little of something
tafsîr: explanation, expounding
tajwîd: the branch of knowledge teaching how to read the Qur’ân correctly
tahârat: cleaning private parts after urinating or defecating
takbîr: Allahu akbar
takbîr (of) iftitâh: the takbîr said at the beginning of a namâz
ta’khîr: performing the earlier one of two prayers in the time of the later one
takhlîl: to comb with fingers, insert one or more fingers to wash or moisten, make khilâl
tama’: using forbidden means to obtain worldlies
taqdîm: performing the later one of two prayers in the time of the earlier one
taqwâ: fearing Allâhu ta’âlâ, abstention from harâms [prohibitions]
tasbîh: subhânallah, alhamdulillah, Allahu akbar, 33 times each after five daily prayers. It is also used for only subhânallah.
tasfiya: purification in the heart
tashahhud: sitting postures, sitting and reciting certain prayers during namâz
taswîf: procrastination in performing pious deeds
tawakkul:trust in, expectation of everything from Allahu ta’âlâ exclusively; expecting from Allahu ta’âlâ the effectiveness of the cause [sabab] after working and holding on to the cause.
tawhîd: (belief in) the Oneness of Allahu ta’âlâ.
tawqifî: Allâhu ta’âlâ’s Names are tawqîfî, that is, it is permissible to use His Names shown by Islam and not permissible to use other words.
tayammum: rubbing one’s hands and face with one’s hands dusted with clean soil in some situations, for instance, when there is no water
thawâb: Muslims will be rewarded in the next world for all their pious actions which they have done in the world. The rewards which Muslims will be given in the next world are called “thawâb.” The word is used as an adjective as well as a noun. For example, when we say that an action is very thawâb, it means that Allah will give many rewards for that action, it is rewardful.
tumânînat: to remain motionless for a while after the ruku’ and between the two sajdas
ummat: followers of Prophets
wadî: turbid white thick liquid that issues after urination
wâjib: essential, almost obligatory, almost as compulsory as fard, so not to be omitted; that never omitted by the Prophet.
waswasa: evil suggestions insinuated by the devil
watan-i aslî: one’s real home
watan-i iqâmat: one’s transient home
witr: the namâz that follows the night prayer
yaqîn: absolute belief; belief which is as positive as the conviction you feel when you have seen something you are to believe
zakât: (fard duty of giving annually) a certain amount of certain kinds of property given to certain kinds of people, whereby the remaining property becomes purified and blessed, and the Muslim who gives it protects himself against being (called) a miser.
zawâl: midday, the time at which the Sun is at its highest point from the horizon and after which the time of early afternoon prayer begins.