Ögrenciye ALLAH Rizasi icin yardim(ENGLISCH) edecek Kardesler araniliyor!!!

Simdiden yardim edecek olan Kardeslerimden ALLAH Razi olsun. Size 3 tane text yaziyorum. Eger bu 3 texti verirsem ingilizceden karneye 2 gelecek. 2 textin sorularini yapmaya calistim, ama !How the Electoral College Works" texti cevapliyamiyorum, cünkü bana zor geliyor.Pazartesi günü ögretmen bizlerden cevaplari sammeln(toplayacak) yapacak.
Yanlislarimi düzeltebilirmisiniz Arkadaslar. Bunlarin hepsi benim icin cok önemli, ögretmen 3 textide teker teker kontoll edip hepsine teker teker not verecek.

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yüksel 67 Tarih: 28.05.2004 17:25
@akillideli
allah sana kolaylik versin ingilizcem olsa hemen yazardim sana basarilar dilerim kardesim
aysila Tarih: 24.05.2004 14:38
arkadasim istersen birde siteler var google den arayinca cikiyor englisch - deutsch übersetzer... kolay gelsin :oki:
Namo Tarih: 23.05.2004 13:07
Abim bundan bir kac hafta önce de bir ingilizce ilgili sorun vardi ve zannediyorum o soruna olan ilgi de bayagi azdi. Buda Board sakinlerinin ve üyelerinin yetersiz ingilizce bilgisinden kaynaklaniyor.

Ama yinede arayan bulur.............. hesabi, "How the Electoral College Works" yazimini Googleye yazdim ve Seiten auf Deutsch olarak arattirdim....... ve neler göreyim. Bir denemeni tavsiye ederim :oki:
akillideli Tarih: 22.05.2004 16:51
@GS2004

olsun Ustam kafana takma, bu yazdiginlan yardim etmis gibi oldun sagol Abim.

Bakalim cevap alabilecekmiyim. INSALLAH alabilirim, ki bu benim icin gercekten önemli ev ödevi
akillideli Tarih: 22.05.2004 09:41
Saygi deger kardeslerim, abilerim, Ustalarim, ögretmenlerim cevaplariniz(yardimlarinizi) bekliyorum. Pazartesi günenne kadar vermem lazim.
akillideli Tarih: 21.05.2004 23:19
3. TEXT


How the Electoral College Works


The current workings of the Electoral College are the result of both design and experience. As it now operates:
•Each State is allocated a number of Electors equal to the number of its U.S. Senators (always 2) plus the number of its U.S. Representatives (which may change each decade according to the size of each State's population as determined in the Census).
•The political parties (or independent candidates) in each State submit to the State's chief election official a list of individuals pledged to their candidate for president and equal in number to the State's electoral vote. Usually, the major political parties select these individuals either in their State party conventions or through appointment by their State party leaders while third parties and independent candidates merely designate theirs.
•Members of Congress and employees of the federal government are prohibited from serving as an Elector in order to maintain the balance between the legislative and executive branches of the federal government.
•After their caucuses and primaries, the major parties nominate their candidates for president and vice president in their national conventions
traditionally held in the summer preceding the election. (Third parties and independent candidates follow different procedures according to the individual State laws). The names of the duly nominated candidates are then officially submitted to each State's chief election official so that they might appear on the general election ballot.
•On the Tuesday following the first Monday of November in years divisible by four, the people in each State cast their ballots for the party slate of Electors representing their choice for president and vice president (although as a matter of practice, general election ballots normally say "Electors for" each set of candidates rather than list the individual Electors on each slate).
•Whichever party slate wins the most popular votes in the State becomes that State's Electors-so that, in effect, whichever presidential ticket gets the most popular votes in a State wins all the Electors of that State. [The two exceptions to this are Maine and Nebraska where two Electors are chosen by statewide popular vote and the remainder by the popular vote within each Congressional district].
•On the Monday following the second Wednesday of December (as established in federal law) each State's Electors meet in their respective State capitals and cast their electoral votes-one for president and one for vice president.
•In order to prevent Electors from voting only for "favorite sons" of their home State, at least one of their votes must be for a person from outside their State (though this is seldom a problem since the parties have consistently nominated presidential and vice presidential candidates from different States).
•The electoral votes are then sealed and transmitted from each State to the President of the Senate who, on the following January 6, opens and reads them before both houses of the Congress.
•The candidate for president with the most electoral votes, provided that it is an absolute majority (one over half of the total), is declared president. Similarly, the vice presidential candidate with the absolute majority of electoral votes is declared vice president.
•In the event no one obtains an absolute majority of electoral votes for president, the U.S. House of Representatives (as the chamber closest to the people) selects the president from among the top three contenders with each State casting only one vote and an absolute majority of the States being required to elect. Similarly, if no one obtains an absolute majority for vice president, then the U.S. Senate makes the selection from among the top two contenders for that office.
•At noon on January 20, the duly elected president and vice president are sworn into office.
Occasionally questions arise about what would happen if the pesidential or vice presidential candidate died at some point in this process.For answers to these, as well as to a number of other "what if" questions, readers are advised to consult a small volume entitled After the People Vote: Steps in Choosing the President edited by Walter Berns and published in 1983 by the American Enterprise Institute. Similarly, further details on the history and current functioning of the Electoral College are available in the second edition of Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections, a real goldmine of information, maps, and statistics.

Questions to “How the Electoral College Works”
1.What kind of people are chosen to be electors and how?
2.How do electors choose the president?
3.What happens if no presidential candidate receives an absolute majority of the electors?
4.Why do you think the founding fathers introduced the Electoral College into the constitutional framework?

Answers to “How the Electoral College Works”
USTALAR YAPAMADIM COK ZORDU

Yanlislarimi düzeltebilirmisiniz Arkadaslar. Bunlarin hepsi benim icin cok önemli, ögretmen 3 textide teker teker kontoll edip hepsine teker teker not verecek.
akillideli Tarih: 21.05.2004 23:17
2. TEXT

GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLE: THE ROLE OF THE CITIZEN


With the drafting of the U.S. Constitution in 1787, the country's Founding Fathers created a new system of government. The idea behind it — quite revolutionary at the time — appears at first glance to be simple and straightforward. The power to govern comes directly from the people, not through primogeniture or the force of arms, but through free and open elections by the citizens of the United States. This may have been tidy and direct as a theory, but in practice it was far from inclusive. Complicating things from the very beginning was the question of eligibility: who would be allowed to cast votes and who would not.
The Founding Fathers were, of course, men of their time. To them, it was self-evident that only those with a stake in society should have a voice in determining who would govern that society. They believed that, since government was established to protect property and personal freedom, those involved in choosing that government should have some of each.

This meant, at the time, that only white Protestant males who owned property could vote. Not women, not poor people, not indentured servants, not Catholics and Jews, not slaves from Africa or Native Americans. "Women, like slaves and servants, were defined by their dependence," says historian Michael Schudson. "Citizenship belonged only to those who were masters of their own lives." Because of these restrictions, only about 6 percent of the population of the brand-new United States chose George Washington to be the country's first president in 1789.

Even though these new Americans were proud of the fact that they had gotten rid of royalty and nobility, "common" people, at first, continued to defer to the "gentry." Therefore, members of rich and well-connected families generally won political office without much opposition. This state of affairs, however, did not last long. The concept of democracy turned out to be so powerful it could not be contained, and those who were not so rich and not so well-connected began to believe that they, too, should have the opportunity to help run things.

EXTENDING THE FRANCHISE

Throughout the 19th century, politics in the United States became, slowly but inexorably, more inclusive. The old ways broke down, groups previously excluded became involved in the political process, and the right to vote was given, bit by bit, to more and more of the people. First came the elimination of religious and property-owning restrictions, so that by the middle of the century most white male adults were able to vote.

Then, after a Civil War was fought (1861-1865) over the question of slavery, three amendments to the U.S. Constitution significantly altered the scope and nature of American democracy. The Thirteenth Amendment, ratified in 1865, abolished slavery. The fourteenth, ratified in 1868, declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens of the country and of the state in which they reside, and that their rights to life, liberty, property, and the equal protection of the laws are to be enforced by the federal government. The Fifteenth Amendment, ratified in 1870, prohibited the federal or state governments from discriminating against potential voters because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

The crucial word "sex" was left off this list, not through oversight; therefore, women continued to be barred from the polls. The extension of suffrage to include former slaves gave new life to the long-simmering campaign for women's right to vote. This battle was finally won in 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment said that voting could not be denied "on account of sex."

Ironically, at this point the situation was reversed. Women could now vote, but many black Americans could not. Beginning in the 1890s, southern whites had systematically removed blacks from electoral politics through voting regulations such as the "grandfather clause" (which required literacy tests for all citizens whose ancestors had not been voters before 1868), the imposition of poll taxes, and, too often, physical intimidation. This disfranchisement continued well into the 20th century. The civil rights movement, which began in the 1950s, resulted in the Voting Rights Act of 1965, a federal law that outlawed unfair electoral procedures and required the Department of Justice supervise southern elections. The Twenty-fourth Amendment, ratified in 1964, abolished the imposition of a poll tax as a qualification for voting, eliminating one of the few remaining ways that states could try to reduce voting by African Americans and poor people.

One final change was made to the Constitution to broaden the franchise. U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War during the 1960s and early 1970s gave new impetus to the idea, first discussed during the Revolutionary War and revived during every war fought since, that people old enough to bear arms for their country were also old enough to vote. The Twenty-sixth Amendment, ratified in 1971, reduced the voting age from 21 to 18 years. Now, nearly all adult citizens of the United States, native-born or naturalized, over the age of 18 are eligible voters. Legal restrictions deny the vote only to some ex-felons and to those who have been declared mentally incompetent.

DIRECT DEMOCRACY

The most important question in U.S. electoral politics these days is not who is eligible to vote, but rather how many of those who are eligible will actually take the time and trouble to go to the polls. The answer now, for presidential elections, is around half. In the election of 1876, voter participation reached the historic high of 81.8 percent. Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, it averaged around 80 percent, but then began a gradual decline that reached a low of 48.9 percent in 1924. The Democratic Party's "New Deal Coalition" during the Great Depression of the 1930s caused a revival of interest on the part of voters, resulting in averages up around 60 percent. Turnouts started back down again in 1968, reaching a low of 49.1 percent in the presidential election of 1996.


Questions to “The Role of the Citizen”
1.What was the new idea the US founding fathers put into action ?
2.How did the founding fathers define the people who were meant to run the country?
3.Who was excluded from voting in the first presidential election?
4.Which power effected the extension to more democracy?
5.Which restrictions to the franchise were overcome first?
6.Who gained most as the result of the Civil War?
7.Which backlash occurred with the beginning of the “Reconstruction” period and how was that ended?
8.How and when was the suffrage for women achieved?
9.Which group was the last to gain from the extension of voting rights?

Answers to to “The Role of the Citizen”
1.The new idea of the US founding fathers in 1787 was to create a new system of government. With that the people can vote free and that taking place open elections.
2.The Founding Fathers opinion was that only those with a stake in society should have a voice in determining who would govern that society. They believed that, since government was established to protect property and personal freedom, those involved in choosing that government should have some of each.
3.Not women, not poor people, not indentured servants, not Catholics and Jews, not slaves from Africa or Native Americans were excluded from voting in the first presidential election. At the time, that only white Protestant males who owned property could vote.
4.The members of rich and well-connected families generally won political office without much opposition. This state of affairs, however, did not last long. The concept of democracy turned out to be so powerful it could not be contained, and those who were not so rich and not so well-connected began to believe that they, too, should have the opportunity to help run things.
ODER(YADA)
After a Civil War was fought(1861-1865) then, after a Civil War was fought (1861-1865) over the question of slavery, three amendments to the U.S. Constitution significantly altered the scope and nature of American democracy.
5.Firstly, the Thirteenth Amendment, ratified in 1865, abolished slavery. The fourteenth, ratified in 1868, declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens of the country and of the state in which they reside, and that their rights to life, liberty, property, and the equal protection of the laws are to be enforced by the federal government. The Fifteenth Amendment, ratified in 1870, prohibited the federal or state governments from discriminating against potential voters because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
6.After the Civil War(1861-1865) the slavery was abolished. The black people gained most as the result of the Civil War, because the slavery was abolished after the Civil War.
7. BILMIYORUM YAPAMADIM

8.The suffrage was in 1920. The women could won the full right to vote after the first world war. The women their rights to vote through the Nineteenth Amendment. The 19th Amendment said that voting could not be denied “on account of sex”.
9.The Twenty-sixth Amendment, ratified in 1971, reduced the voting age from 21 to 18 years. Now, nearly all adult citizens of the United States, native-born or naturalized, over the age of 18 and the black people are eligible voters.


Yanlislarimi düzeltebilirmisiniz Arkadaslar. Bunlarin hepsi benim icin cok önemli, ögretmen 3 textide teker teker kontoll edip hepsine teker teker not verecek.
akillideli Tarih: 21.05.2004 23:15
1. TEXT

POLITICAL PARTIES


Many of America's Founding Fathers hated the thought of political parties, quarreling "factions" they were sure would be more interested in contending with each other than in working for the common good. They wanted individual citizens to vote for individual candidates, without the interference of organized groups — but this was not to be.

By the 1790s, different views of the new country's proper course had already developed, and those who held these opposing views tried to win support for their cause by banding together. The followers of Alexander Hamilton called themselves Federalists; they favored a strong central government that would support the interests of commerce and industry. The followers of Thomas Jefferson called themselves Democratic-Republicans; they preferred a decentralized agrarian republic in which the federal government had limited power. By 1828, the Federalists had disappeared as an organization, replaced by the Whigs, brought to life in opposition to the election that year of President Andrew Jackson. The Democratic-Republicans became Democrats, and the two-party system, still in existence today, was born.

In the 1850s, the issue of slavery took center stage, with disagreement in particular over the question of whether or not slavery should be permitted in the country's new territories in the West. The Whig Party straddled the issue and sank to its death; it was replaced in 1854 by the Republican Party, whose primary policy was that slavery be excluded from all the territories. Just six years later, this new party captured the presidency when Abraham Lincoln won the election of 1860. By then, parties were well established as the country's dominant political organizations, and party allegiance had become an important part of most people's consciousness. Party loyalty was passed from fathers to sons, and party activities — including spectacular campaign events, complete with uniformed marching groups and torchlight parades — were a part of the social life of many communities.

By the 1920s, however, this boisterous folksiness had diminished. Municipal reforms, civil service reform, corrupt practices acts, and presidential primaries to replace the power of politicians at national conventions had all helped to clean up politics — and make it quite a bit less fun.

Why did this country end up with only two political parties? Most officials in America are elected from single-member districts and win office by beating out their opponents in a system for determining winners called "first-past-the-post" — the one who gets the most votes wins, and there is no proportional accounting. This encourages the creation of a duopoly: one party in power, the other out. If those who are "out" band together, they have a better chance of beating those who are "in." Occasionally third parties do come along and receive some share of the votes, for a while at least. The most successful third party in recent years has been H. Ross Perot's Reform Party, which had some success in the presidential elections of 1992 and 1996. Jesse Ventura became the first Reform Party candidate to win statewide office when he was elected governor of Minnesota in 1998. Third parties have a hard time surviving, though, because one or both of the major parties often adopt their most popular issues, and thus their voters.

"In America the same political labels — Democratic and Republican — cover virtually all public officeholders, and therefore most voters are everywhere mobilized in the name of these two parties," says Nelson W. Polsby, professor of political science, in the book New Federalist Papers: Essays in Defense of the Constitution. "Yet Democrats and Republicans are not everywhere the same. Variations — sometimes subtle, sometimes blatant — in the 50 political cultures of the states yield considerable differences overall in what it means to be, or to vote, Democratic or Republican. These differences suggest that one may be justified in referring to the American two-party system as masking something more like a hundred-party system."

Questions to “Political Parties”
1.What was the attitude of the US founding fathers with regard to political parties?
2.What line of partisanship started with former president Alexander Hamilton?
3.What line of partisanship started with former president Thomas Jefferson?
4.What role of parties is described in the text?
5.Why do third parties have such a hard time to survive?

Answers to “Political Parties”

1.The attitude of the US Founding Fathers with regard to political parties was: many of America's Founding Fathers hated the thought of political parties. They preferred the idea of working for the common good and they wanted individual citizens to vote for individual candidates, without the interference of organized groups.

2+3+4= With former president Alexander Hamilton started “Federalist” line of partnership. The Federalist favored a strong central government that would support the interests of commerce and industry. By 1828, the Federalists had disappeared as an organization, replaced by the Whigs, brought to life in opposition to the election that year of President Andrew Jackson.
With former president Thomas Jefferson started “Democratic-Republicans” line of partnership. They preferred a decentralized agrarian republic in which the federal government had limited power. The Democratic-Republicans became Democrats, and the two-party system, still in existence today, was born.

5. Third parties have a hard time surviving, though, because one or both of the major parties often adopt their most popular issues, and thus their voters.

NOT: 2+3+4 beraber yaptim, Siz neler düsünüyorsunuz Arkadaslar. Yanlislarimi düzeltebilirmisiniz Arkadaslar. Bunlarin hepsi benim icin cok önemli, ögretmen 3 textide teker teker kontoll edip hepsine teker teker not verecek.