Van ili ingilizce tanıtımı
Van (Armenian: Վան, Kurdish: Wan; from Armenian van - village, settlement is a city in eastern Turkey and the seat of Van Province, and is located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. The city's population in 2005 was 284,464. According to the Encyclopedia of the Orient, Kurds form the majority - however, no census based on ethnicity has been held.
Archaeological excavations and surveys carried out in the Van province and environs prove that the history of the city itself goes back as far as 5000 B.C. The Tilkitepe Mound, which is on the shore of Lake Van itself and only a few kilometres to the south of Van Castle is the only source of information about the oldest culture of Van.
Under the ancient name of Tushpa, Van was the capital of the Urartian kingdom in the 9th century BC. Its ancient inhabitants called themselves Nairi and the city was a major Armenian center. The early settlements are believed to have centered on the steep-sided bluff now known as Van Castle (Van Kalesi), close to the edge of Lake Van and a few kilometers west of the modern city. Here have been found Urartian cuneiform inscriptions dating to the 8th and 7th centuries BC. In the trilingual Behistun inscription, carved in the order of Darius the Great of Persia, the country referred to as Urartu in Babylonian is called Armenia in Old Persian.
From the Medes to the Sassanids
Inscription of Xerxes the Great, Van Citadel.The region came under the control of the Medes in the early 7th century BC and later by Persians in the mid 6th century BC. In 331 BC, Van was conquered by Alexander the Great and after his death became part of the Seleucid Empire. By the early 2nd century BC it was part of the Kingdom of Armenia. It became an important center during the reign of the Armenian king, Tigranes II, who founded the city of Tigranakert in the 1st century BC . This region was ruled by Parthians and Romans before 4th century AD. The Persian Sassanids finally gained control of the area in the 4th century AD.
The Byzantine Empire and Vaspurakan
The Byzantine Empire briefly held the region from 628 to 640, after which it was invaded by the Muslim Arabs, who consolidated their conquests as the province of Ermeniye. Decline in Arab power eventually allowed local Armenian rulers to re-emerge, with the Artsruni dynasty soon becoming the most powerful. Initially dependent on the rulers of the Kingdom of Ani, they declared their independence in 908, founding the kingdom of Vaspurakan. The kingdom had no specific capital: the court would move as the king transferred his residence from place to place, such as Van city, Vostan, Aghtamar, etc. In 1021 the last king of Vaspurakan, John-Senekerim Artsruni, ceded his entire kingdom to the Byzantine empire, who established the Vaspurakan theme on the former Artsruni territories.
The Seljuk Empire
Incursions by the Seljuk Turks into Vaspurakan started in the 1050s. After their victory in 1071 at the battle of Manzikert the entire region fell under their control. After them, local Muslim rulers emerged, such as the Ahlatshahs and the Ayyubids (1207). For a 20 year period, Van was held by the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate until the 1240s when it was conquered by the Mongols. In the 14th century, Van was held by the Kara Koyunlu Turks, and later by the Timurids.
The Ottoman Empire
The first half of the 15th century saw the Van region become a land of conflict as it was disputed by the Ottoman Empire and the Persian Safavid Empire. The Safavids captured Van in 1502. The Ottomans took the city in 1515 and held it for a short period. The Safavids took it again in 1520 and the Ottomans gained final and definite control of the city in 1548. They first made Van into a sanjak dependent on the Erzurum eyalet, and later into a separate Van eyalet in about 1570.
World War I
Ruins of the old city of Van.Main article: Van Resistance
The city's Armenian population was devastated during World War I by Ottoman troops as a part of the Armenian Genocide. The regional administrator, Jevdet Bey, ordered the execution of four Armenian leaders resulting in an uprising in Van on April 20, 1915, against the Turks and in favor of the Russians. However, most historians agree that the Armenian residents, hoping to avoid the slaughter inflicted on the rural populations surrounding Van, defended themselves in the Armenian quarters of the city against the Turks. The anti-Turkish and pro-Russian sentiments were in the hopes of being rescued from Turkish massacres. The Russians finally relieved the Armenian defenders of Van in late May 1915. In August, a victory over the Russian army allowed the Ottoman army to retake Van. In September 1915, the Russians forced the Turks out of Van for the second time. Russian forces began to leave the area after the Russian Revolution of 1917, and by April 1918, it was recaptured by the Ottoman army. However, the end of World War I forced the Ottoman army to surrender its claim to Van.
Turkish War of Independence and Republic
In the Treaty of Sèvres, the Entente Powers decided to cede the city to the Democratic Republic of Armenia. Turkish revolutionaries, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk rejected the terms of the treaty and instead waged the Turkish War of Independence. By 1920, Van fell under Turkish control again and its remaining Armenian inhabitants were expelled in final a round of ethnic cleansing. With the Treaty of Lausanne and Treaty of Kars, the Treaty of Sèvres was annulled and Van remained officially under Turkish sovereignty.
By the end of the conflicts, the town of Van was empty and in ruins. The city was rebuilt after the war a few kilometers east of the ancient citadel, which is now known as Van Castle (Van Kalesi). The city lies at about 1,750 metres (5,570 ft) above sea level. In the 1950s Van suffered from a devastating earthquake.
Bakery, Van, 1973.
Van cat, Van, Turkey 1973, showing different coloured eyes
A number of sources affirm that Lake Van shelters a monster (Monster of Lake Van-Van Gölü Canavarı). A 4-meter high statue has been erected in its honor.The modern city is located on the plain extending from the Lake Van, at a distance of 5 kilometers from the lake shore.
It has often been called "The Pearl of the East" because of the beauty of its surrounding landscape. An old Armenian proverb in the same sense is "Van in this world, paradise in the next". This phrase has been slightly modified in Turkish as dünyada Van, ahirette iman or "Van for this world, faith for the next".
The city is home to Van Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi (Van 100th Year University) and recently came to headlines in Turkey for two highly publicized investigations initiated by the Prosecutor of Van, one of which was focused on accusations against the university rector, Prof. Yücel Aşkın, who was kept in custody for a time. He finally acquired but lost his rectorate. He is a grandson of Agop Vartovyan, who was one of the Ottoman Armenians and was accepted the founder of modern Turkish theatre, and is a department chairman of Environmental Engineering in Van 100th Year University.
In culinary terms, as some cities in Turkey became renowned for their like kebap culture or else, Van has distinguished itself with its breakfast culture.
The Van Cat (Van Kedisi) is a breed of cat native to this town and named after it. The Van Cat is noted for its white fur, having different coloured eyes, and enjoying swimming and rain.
On March 22, 2008, riots broke out in Van as the Newruz celebrations turned violent. The riots consisted mostly of young adults throwing rocks at police. damage included many broken windows. 
Famous people from Van
Mkrtich Avetisian, an Armenian journalist and political figure, one of the founders of Armenakan organization.
Mkrtich Khrimian, an Armenian writer, religious leader, and Catholicos of All Armenians (1892-1907).
Bedros Kapamacıyan, Ottoman-Armenian mayor of Van killed by Tashnak assassins on 10 December 1912.
Vahram Alazan, an Armenian poet, writer and public activist, the First Secretary of the Writers Union of Armenia from 1933 to 1936.
Münip Boya, Turkish deputy in the Ottoman parliament between 1914-1918 and in the Turkish Grand National Assembly between 1923-1927.
Ruhi Su, Turkish folk singer.
Arshile Gorky, an Armenian-American painter who had a seminal influence on Abstract Expressionism.
Panos Terlemezian, painter, a People's artist of Armenian SSR.
Aghasi Khanjian, the leader of Soviet Armenia from 1930 to 1936.
Vardan Ajemian, an Armenian theatral director and actor, People's Artist of the USSR.
Gurgen Mahari, an Armenian writer and poet.
Haig Patigian, an Armenian-American sculptor.
Nairi Zarian, a Soviet Armenian poet and writer.
Vankulu Mehmed Efendi, author of the first printed book - a dictionary - in the Turkish language.
Ferit Melen, a politician, prime minister of Turkey between 1972-1973.
Van is connected with Tatvan 96km away by train ferry which avoids the need to build 250km of railway through difficult terrain. This will be replaced when traffic increases sufficiently.