MODALLAR
Modallar yüklemin havasını, modunu belirtmek için kullanılan kiplerdir. Yüklemleri her zaman V1 durumundadır. Zaman zaman continuous olurlar.
Modals : Can, Could, May, Might, Should, Ought to, Must, Would, Will, Shall
Semi-modals : Dare, Need, Have to, Used to
Others : had better, be supposed to, be used to, be accustomed to etc.

CAN
ABILITY (Yeterlilik) (present) She can design well.
IMPOSSIBILITY (İmkansızlık) That cannot be Tom - He is in New York now.
POSSIBILITY (Olasılık) (present) Smoking can cause cancer.
Perhaps we can meet next week.
REQUEST (rica, istek) [Can I… ]
OFFER (öneri) [Can I…]
PERMISSION (İzin isteme / verme) Can I have some cake please?
Can I help you with those bags?
“Can I leave the class early?” “Yes, sure”
ORDER (kızarak birşey yapmasını isteme) If you carry on being horrible to your sister, Sophie, you can just go to bed! (Kızkardeşine kötü davranmaya devam edeceksen, doğru yatağa-gidebilirsin-)
SUGGESTION (tavsiye) You can try another store, if you want.
DISBELIEF (İnanamama) [can’t] You cannot mean that. You must be kidding. (Bunu kastediyor olamazsın. Şaka yapıyor olmalısın)
INAPPROPRIACY/INACCURACY (Uygunsuzluk) [can’t] You can’t wear that dress. It is indecent. (Bu elbiseyi giyemezsin. Uygun/saygın değil.)
You cannot really call this small knife a gun. (Bu küçücük bıçağa bir silah diyemezsin/demen uygun değil.)

CAN’T HAVE V3
IMPOSSIBILITY (İmkansızlık) (Past) That cannot have been Tom because we knew he had gone to New York. (PAST) (Bunu yapmış olan Tom olamazdı, çünkü biliyorduk ki Tom New York’a gitmişti.)

NOT : Yeterlilik (ability) belirten CAN modalının kullanılamadığı yerlerde to be able to kullanılabilir.
 To be able to sing well was not sufficient enough to make her famous singer. [to infinitive]
 Will she be able to cope with the work? [future tense]
 He's never been able to admit his mistakes. [present perfect tense]
 I'm sorry that I wasn't able to phone you yesterday. [past tense]
 It's so wonderful being able to see the sea from my window. [gerund]
Can’t be doing with ST/ SB : Katlanamamak
 I cannot be doing with people who complain all time. (Sürekli şikayet eden insanlarla yapamam/insanlara katlanamam)
COULD

ABILITY (Yeterlilik) (Past) She could play the guitar well when she was 7.
POSSIBILITY (olasılık) (Present) We could get married by next year. (Gelecek yıl evlenebiliriz)
REQUEST (Kibar rica) [Could you…] Could you lend me £5?
PERMISSION (izin) [Could I…] “Could I use your phone?” “Yes you could.”
You said we could watch television when we've finished our homework.
SUGGESTION (öneri) We could have dinner, if you like. (Eğer istersen akşam yemek yiyebiliriz.)
NECESSITY (gereklilik) Well, you could try to look a little more enthusiastic! (Pekala, biraz daha istekli görünmeye çalışabilirsin)

COULD HAVE V3

IM/POSSIBILITY (olasılık) (Past) You couldn’t have left your bag on the bus, could you? (Çantanı otobüste unutmuş olamazsın, değil mi?)
They told me that they had not received the letter yet. I could have sent the letter to a wrong address.
POSSIBILITY (olasılık) (Future) By this time next week, I could have left for Washington. (Gelecek hafta bu vakit itibariyle Washington’a doğru yola çıkmış olabilirim)
POSSIBILITY which didn’t happen (Gerçekleşmemiş olasılık) (Past) We could/might have gone to Spain last year, but we went to Alanya instead. (Geçen yıl İspanya’ya gidebilirdik ama yerine Alanya’ya gittik.)
NECESSITY (gereklilik) I waited ages for you - you could've said that you weren't coming! (Ağaç oldum – gelmeyeceğini söyleyebilirdin)

COULD and WAS ABLE TO (=MANAGED TO)
Olumsuz cümlelerde aralarında fark olmasa da, olumlu cümlelerde BE ABLE TO ve/veya MANAGED TO ile COULD arasında kullanımlarında tercİh edİlme yerlerİ açısından farklar vardır:
a) Şu yüklemlerle hemen her zaman COULD: see, hear, smell, taste, feel, remember, understand
 We had a lovely room in the hotel. We could see the lake.
b) Geçmişteki genel yetenek veya izin durumunda COULD (general ability or permission in the past):
 My grandfather could speak five languages. (general ability)
 We were totally free. We could do what we wanted. (general permission)
c) Özel durumlarda (special situation), cümle pozitif ise WAS ABLE TO veya MANAGED TO:
 The fire spread through the building very quickly, but fortunately everybody was able to / managed to escape. (not could)
 The fire spread through the building very quickly, unfortunately many peeople couldn’t / was not able to escape. (in negative sentences both are possible)
COULD DO WITH ST= need ST
 Your hair could do with a wash. (present) (Saçlarının yıkanmaya ihtiyacı var)
 Your hair could have done with a wash yesterday.(past) (Saçlarının yıkanmaya ihtiyacı vardı)

MAY/MIGHT

POSSIBILITY (Olasılık) (present OR future) I’ll write the date of the meeting in my diary, otherwise I may/might forget.
REQUEST (rica) (present) [May I]
OFFER (Teklif)
PERMISSION (İzin isteme-verme) May/might I use your phone?
May/Might I drive you home? (Sizi eve bırakabilir miyim?)
“May/Might I come in?” “You may come in if you want.”
SUGGESTION (Öneri, tavsiye) I thought we might/may go to the zoo on Saturday.
(Düşündüm de Cumartesileri hayvanat bahçesine gidebiliriz)

MAY/MIGHT HAVE V3

POSSIBILITY (Olasılık) (PAST) She did not come to work yesterday. She may/might have been ill. (Dün işe gelmedi. Herhalde hastaydı.)
POSSIBILITY (Olasılık) (FUTURE) By next Friday I may/might/could have completed the report. (Gelecek cumaya kadar raporumu tamamlayabilirim)
POSSIBILITY which didn’t happen
(Gerçekleşmemiş olasılık) (PAST) The plan might/could easily have gone wrong, but in fact it was a great success.

NOT:
1. May/Might I yaygın bir kullanımken, May/Might you şeklinde bir kullanım yoktur.
2. MAY / MIGHT (JUST) AS WELL madem öyle, yapmaktan bir kaybımız olmaz, yapalım bari anlamında kullanılır.
 We have missed the bus. The next one comes next hour. We may as well walk.
 If no one else wants this book we might as well give it to him.
3. may/might be Ving
a) şu andaki ihtimal
 Don’t phone him right now. Their new-born baby may/might be sleeping.
b) gelecek için olası plan
 I may/might be going to Ireland in July.
4. May SB/ST do ST temenni, dua olarak kullanılır, devrik yapıdadır.
 May God help you! (Tanrı sana yardım etsin)
 May she rest in peace! (Huzur içinde yatsın)
5. Be that as it may = nevertheless, however
 I know that he was tried hard; be that as it may, his work is just not good enough. (Biliyorum çok çabaladı ama basitçe söylemek gerekirse yaptığı iş yeterince iyi değil.)


MUST

NECESSITY (Zorunluluk-Gereklilik)
(PRESENT) You must be here by 10 o’clock. (=It’s necessary that you be here by 10 o’clock. )
I must wash the car tomorrow.
You must wear these socks.
PROHIBITION (Yasaklama) You must not wear these socks.
You must not smoke in the classroom. It’s strictly forbidden.
CONCLUSION (Sonuç çıkarma) After that long walking you must be tired now.
SUGGESTION (Tavsiye) He’s very smart. You must meet him.
FRUSTRATION, ANNOYANCE (Öfke, kızgınlık) Must the media exaggerate so much? (Medya bu kadar abartmak zorunda mı?)

MUST HAVE V3

CONCLUSION (Sonuç çıkarma) John looks very tired this morning. He must not have slept last night. (John yorgun görünüyor. Dün gece uyumamış olmalı).
She got here very quickly. She must have walked very fast.

HAVE (GOT) TO

NECESSITY (Zorunluluk-Gereklilik)
(PRESENT) What time have you got to be there?
Do we have to finish this today? [present]
We'll have to start keeping detailed records. [future]
Jackie's ill so they've had to change their plans. [p. perf.]
Comparison: MUST vs. HAVE TO
MUST daha çok bireysel zorunluluklar ile ilgilenmekteyken HAVE TO Dışarıdan gelen, resmi, kurumsal zorunluluk ile ilgilenir. Ancak HAVE TO’nun her iki anlam için de kullanılması gittikçe yerleşmekte ve özellikle Amerikan İngilizcesinde MUST deyince akla ilk olarak sonuç çıkarma (conclusion) gelmektedir.
 Nurses have to wear a uniform. [hastane düzeni]
 Nurses must wear the same uniform. [birden fazla üniformalarının olması kafa karıştırıyor]
 I have to collect the children from school at 3 o’clock. [okulun dağılma vakti saat 3]
 I must collect the children. [Eşimin işi vardı, dolayısıyla ben almalıyım]

NOTLAR:
must [informal] zorunluluk anlamında bir isim
 If you live in the country a car is a must. (Şehirde yaşıyorsan araba bir zorunluluk)
a must-do/-have/-see, etc. [informal] olmazsa olmaz anlamında
 The cashmere scarf is this season's must-have. (Kaşmir eşarp bu mevsimin olmazsa olmazı)
 It's a moderately entertaining film but it's certainly not a must-see. (Orta seviyede eğlenceli bir film fakat kesinlikle bir “illaki seyredilmeli” değil.)



SHOULD /OUGHT TO

DUTY, RESPONSIBILITY (görev, sorumluluk) "Should I apologize to him?" "Yes, I think you should."
You should be ashamed of yourselves.
NECESSITY (gereklilik) There should/ought to be an investigation into the cause of the disaster.
This computer isn't working as it should/ought to
SUGGESTION You should / ought to give him a chance.
PROBABILITY I enjoyed the first novel, so the new one should / ought to be good.
UNHAPPENED EXPECTATION : (PRESENT) gerçekleşmemiş beklenti. [should be Ving] She should be preparing the breakfast now. But she is sleeping instead. (Şu anda kahvaltı hazırlıyor olmalıydı ama onun yerine uyuyor).
OFFER, ASKING APPROVAL (teklifte bulunma, onay isteme) [Should we or I] It's rather cold in here. Should/Shall I (= Do you want me to) turn the heating on?
Shall/should I put these books over there?
If, in case, for fear that veya lest cümlelerinde
LESS POSSIBILITY (düşük ihtimal) If you should change your mind, let me know. (Fikrini değiştirisen haberim olsun)
Should anyone call, please tell them I’m busy. (Birileri ararsa, lütfen meşgul olduğumu söyleyin)
In case you should need my help, here is my number. (İşte numaram, olur ya yardımıma ihtiyacın olur.)
She gripped her son’s arm lest he should be trampled by the mob. (Kalabalıkta çiğnenmesin diye oğlunun kolunu sıkıca tutu.)
SURPRISE (şaşırma) I was just getting off the bus when who should I see but my old school friend Pat! (Tam otöbüsten iniyordum ki kimi göreyim, eski okul arkadaşım Pat)

SHOULD HAVE V3

NECESSITY (gerçekleşmemiş gereklilik-sorumluluk-yükümlülük) (PAST) I had a test this morning. I did not do well. I should have studied last night. (Dün gece çalışmam gerekirdi.)
My back hurts. I should not have carried that heavy box. (Sırtım ağrıyor. O ağır kutuyu taşımam gerekirdi.)
EXPECTATION (beklenti) (FUTURE) The builders should/ought to have finished by the end of the week. (İnşaatçılar hafta sonu itibariyle işlerini bitirmiş olurlar / diye bekliyorum
SURPRISE (şaşırma) You should have seen her face when she found out we were kidding. (Şaka yaptığımızı farkettiğinde yüzünün halini görmeliydin.)
EXTRAS
a) British English’te I ve WE’den sonra would yerine [FORMAL and RARE]
 I should like a whisky before I go to bed. (=I would like a whisky…)
b) That clausedan önce, tavsiye, aciliyet veya önem belirten bir yüklem, bir isim veya bir sıfat varsa that clause’un yüklemi her koşulda “bare infinitive” olur veya önüne SHOULD gelir. Bkz. SUBJUNCTIVE
 She recommended that Mr. Smith (should) take some time off.
 In order that training (should) be effective it must be planned systematically.
c) OUGHT TO bitişiktir. Geçmişi OUGHT TO HAVE V3 şeklinde yapılır. NOT ought ile to arasındadır.
 Such things ought not to be allowed. [ought not to]
 He oughtn’t to have been driving so far. [ought not to have V3]

d) HAD BETTER +V1 Tavsiye belirten should gibidir. Ancak daha informal bir kullanıma sahiptir.
 You had better wear this suit. (Bu takımı giysen daha iyi olur.)
 You had better not drink any more. You will drive. (içmesen daha iyi olur; araba kullanacaksın)
e) TO BE SUPPOSED TO DO beklenti belirten should gibidir. Daha resmidir, özellikle tarifeli (scheduled) eylemler için kullanılır. PAST olduğunda beklentinin gerçekleşmemiş olduğu anlaşılır:
 The game is supposed to begin at 10:00. (Oyunun 10’da başlaması gerekiyor)
 Jack was supposed to call me last night. I wonder why he didn’t. (Jack’in dün beni araması gerekiyordu. Acaba niye aramadı?)


NEED

LACK OF NECESSITY (serbestlik, zorunluluk olmama hali) I can hear you. You needn’t / don’t need to / don’t have to shout.
“Must I go?” “No, you needn’t.”
veya “Yes, you must”
NECESSITY (gereklilik zorunluluk) (PRESENT) I don't think we need / need to ask him.
“Need I go?” “No, you needn’t.”
veya “Yes, you must.”
NEED + Ving (zorunluluk, pasif) This room needs brightening up a bit.
The batteries in the radio need changing. = (The batteries need to be changed.)

NEEDN’T HAVE V3

IN SOMETHING NOT NECESSARY, BUT DONE (gerekmediği halde yapilmiş şeylerde) [PAST] He needn’t have taken the umbrella (=He took the umbrella, but this was not necessary)


NOT: NEEDN’T HAVE DONE ile DIDN’T NEED TO DO farklı anlamdadırlar. NEEDN’T HAVE DONE yapılması gerekmediği halde yapılmış olan işlerde kullanılır. Karşılaştınız:
 He needn’t have taken the umbrella. (=He took the umbrella, but this was not necessary)
 He didn’t need to take the umbrella. (=He did not take the umbrella as it was not necessary)
 He didn’t have to take the umbrella. (=He did not take the umbrella as it was not necessary)
• It was Sunday I didn’t need to get up early. So I slept till 12 o’clock.
• It was Sunday. I needn’t have got up early but I woke up at 7 o’clock since I had totally forgotten that it was Sunday.

WILL

FUTURE (Gelecek zaman) Clare will be five years old next month.
The train leaves at 8.58, so we'll be in Scotland by lunchtime.
I'll see him tomorrow./I'll be seeing him tomorrow.
It won't be easy to find another secretary.
There'll be trouble when she finds out.
WILLINGNESS (gönüllülük) I'll give you a lift. (Sizi ben bırakırım)
Ask Ian if he'll take the package. (Ian’a paketi almak isteyip istemediğini sorar mısın?)
The car won't start. (Çalışmaz bu araba)
REQUEST/INVITATION Will you give that to Tony when you see him, please?
Will you join us for a drink, Evie?
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (Type I) If he's late again, I'll be very angry.
ORDER with anger or threat (kızgınlık veya tehdit taşıyan emirler) Will you stop being such a pain!
You'll go upstairs and you'll go straight to bed like your father told you!
CERTAINTY (kesinlik)
a) ALWAYS (her zaman veya genellikle öyle olan olaylarda) Accidents will happen.
Fruit will keep longer in the fridge.
The product with the better-known brand name will always sell better.
She's 85 now, but she will insist on doing all her own housework.
CERTAINTY (kesinlik)
b) LIKELY (yüksek olasılıktaki tahminlerde) That'll be Scott at the door.
That'll be his mother with him.
As you will all probably already know, election day is next week.

WILL HAVE V3

CERTAINTY (gelecekte belirli bir zamanda olacak veya tamamlanacak işlerde) By the time we get there, Jim will have left.



SHALL

FUTURE (Gelecek zaman) If you do that one more time, I shall be very cross.
I shall never forget you. (söz)
So we'll see you at the weekend, shall we (= is that right)?
I'm afraid I shall not/shan't be able to come to your party. (kanaat)
Don't worry, I shall be there to meet the train. (söz)
WILLINGNESS (gönüllülük) We shall (= intend to) let you know as soon as there's any news.
SUGGEST (öneri, teklif) [Shall I/we…]
a) SHALL I / SHALL WE
b) LET’s…, SHALL WE? a) Shall we go out for dinner tonight?
Shall I pick the children up from school today?
b) Let’s go by car, shall we?
“Shall we hire a car?” “Yes let’s” or “No, let’s not”
ASKING ADVICE [Esp BrE] What shall I wear to the party?
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (Type I) If he's late again, I'll be very angry.
CERTAIN ORDER (kesin emirlerde) The school rules state that no child shall be allowed out of the school during the day, unless accompanied by an adult. (FORMAL)
You shall go to the ball, Cinderella.

DARE

CESARET ETMEK (Çoğunlukla olumsuz cümlelerde kullanılır. Olumsuz cümlelerde yüklemden önceki TO atılabilir.) She dare not complain. (modal)
She doesn’t dare (to) complain. (yüklem)
I daren't/don't dare think how much it's going to cost.
Everyone in the office complains that he smells awful, but nobody dares (to) mention it to him.
BU NE CESARET [how dare...] How dare you! (Bu ne cürret, bu ne cesaret!)
How dare you read my diary!(Ne cesaretle günlüğümü okursun?)
How dare he tell me what to do!
CHALLANGE (Olumlu cümlelerde, HOW soruları hariç, meydan okumak anlamındadır.) “Why did he try to cross the river when the ice was so thin?” “Another boy dared him to do it.”
Wear the low-cut blouse with your pink shorts - go on, I dare you!

NOT: DARESAY suppose (sanırım, galiba) anlamında
 I daresay they’ll serve us on the plane. (Sanırım bize uçakta servis yapacak)


WOULD

FUTURE in PAST (geçmişteki gelecek) [past of WILL] He said he would be here at 8 o’clock. (8’de burda olacağını söylemişti)
She hoped (that) we would come to her party.(Partisine geleceğimizi umuyordu.)
I thought that he would refuse your invitation. (Davetini reddedeceğini sanıyordum.)
WILLINGNESS (gönüllülük) She would not help me. (She refused to help)
The car would not start. (It refused to start)
POLITE REQUEST
a) [Would you...] Would you please pass the salt?
POLITE REQUEST
b) WOULD YOU MIND... “Would you mind if I left early?” “No, please”
“Would you mind leaving early?” “No, please”
POLITE REQUEST
c) IF YOU (JUST) WOULD... If you would sign the register (Please sign it)
If you’d just put your address on that back of the cheque. (Please write your address on its back.)
with CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (Type II) She would look better if she had shorter hair. (=She would look better with shorter hair.)
(If I were you,) I would go on foot. (Yerinde olsam yürürdüm)
with WISH CLAUSES I wish you would be quiet for a minute. (Keşke 1 dakikalığına sussan.)
PAST HABIT (geçmişte kalmış alışkanlık) Weekends we would/used to cycle to the beach. (Hafta sonları sahile bisikletle giderdik.)
I used to have a Mercedes. (Burada would kullanamayız.)
Whenever we went to my Uncle Frank’s house, we would/used to play in the garden.
WOULD RATHER / WOULD SOONER / WOULD JUST AS SOON
1) With a verb: [would rather do ST] (present) [would rather have done] (past) Yüklem yalın halde
 I would rather read than walk. [PRESENT] (=I prefer reading to walking.)
 We went by air, although I would rather have gone by sea. [PAST]
2.a) With a sentence, present time: [would rather SB did ST] kasıt PRESENT ama cümle simple past
 I’d rather he went by bus. (present) (=I prefer him to go by bus.)
2.b) With a sentence, past: [would rather SB had done ST] kasıt PAST ama cümle past perfect
 My friend took me to the student opera. I’d rather he had taken me to the theater instead.
NOTE: WOULD RATHER reported speech’te değişmez.
 He said, “I’d rather go by bus.” He said he’d rather go by bus.
WOULD LIKE / PREFER / LOVE = want WOULD HATE = don’t want
a) kendilerinden sonra isim gelir
 Would you like a sandwich? [Would you like ST]
 Tom would like a lift today. (Present)
 Would you like coffee or would you prefer tea? [would like ST]
b) kendilerinden sonra yüklem geldiğinde yüklem TO alır.
 Would you like to come this way please? (Please come this way?)
 Would you like to have a cup of coffee? [Would you like to do ST]
 I would prefer to stay at home tonight rather than go to the cinema. [I would prefer to do ST than do ST]
 If you would like to go concert I will get a ticket. [would like to do
NOT 1: Geçmişleri WANTED veya DIDN’T WANT şeklinde yapılır:
 Tom would like a lift now.
 Tom wanted a lift yesterday. (Past)
NOT 2: Bu yapıların perfectleri [would like to have done] unreal bir durum belirtir.
 I would like to have written to him. (But this was not possible)
 I would have liked a day off. (But I did not get it)
NOT 3: WOULD PREFER “to V1” Would Rather ise “to” olmaksızın “V1” alır.
 I’m tired. I’d rather not go out tonight.
 I’m tired. I’d prefer to stay at home tonight.

WOULD HAVE V3

with CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (Type III) I would have applied the job, if I had seen the advertisement. (İlanı görseydim işe başvururdum)
USED TO ise bir semi-modaldır Geçmişteki alışkanlığı ifade eder. Olumsuzu Used not to/ usedn’t/ didn’t use to ile yapılmaktadır. En yaygın olarak didn’t use to tercih edilir. Didn’t used to da kullanılmakta ama yanlış kabul edilmektedir.
 We used to have a railway station. But they closed it down.
BE/GET USED TO ST/ DOING ST (alışkın olmak, be kısmı çeşitli zamanlarda çekimli olabilir)
 I’m used to weather in this country. [be used to ST]
 I’m used to driving on the left since I’ve been living in England for 5 years. [be used to doing ST]
 I was used to driving on the left when I was in England for 5 years.
 I think I will be used to living in this city in 5 years.
 I can get used to seeing your face. (joke) ( Yüzünü görmeye alışabilirim.)
BE/GET ACCUSTOMED TO ST / DOING ST
BE FAMILIAR WITH TO ST / DOING ST= (alışkın/aşina olmak)
 I’m accustomed to tradition in this part of the world.
 Are you familiar with the computer software they use?
NOT: GONNA= going to, GOTTA= have got to, WANNA= want to

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