SECTION I. LISTENING/ Questions 1- 6 (6 x 1.5 = 9 pts)
Choose the most suitable alternative to complete each of the following sentences according to the text you heard.

1. The rainbow _______________.
a) appears during sunset
b) is violet on the outside and red on the inside
c) is a broken optical spectrum of light
d) is an optical and meteorological phenomenon

2. The rainbow effect can be observed when __________________.
a) the sun shines from behind the observer at a low angle or height
b) the whole sky is dark with clouds
c) waterfalls release vapor on a cloudy day
d) the observer is near a river

3. Isaac Newton showed that _______________.
a) the rainbow does not contain the color blue
b) moonbows are white
c) the rainbow actually exists in the sky
d) white light contained all the colors of the rainbow

4. A second, dimmer rainbow ________________.
a) is caused by a double reflection of the sunlight
b) is seen inside the primary bow
c) appears at an angle of 15 degrees
d) is red on the outside and violet on the inside

5. According to __________, the rainbow is a sign of God's contract with mankind.
a) Galileo
b) The Bible
c) Greek mythology
d) American Indian mythology

6. In __________________, the rainbow was a door to stop humans from leaving the world.
a) Chinese mythology c) American mythology
b) Hindu mythology d) Indian mythology








SECTION II. USE of ENGLISH/ Questions 7- 41 (35 x 1 = 35 points)
Choose the alternative that best fits in each blank to make the text meaningful.

Text 1.

Scientists revealed the secret world of plants long ago. It _________7 for many years that when exposed to light under suitable conditions of temperature and moisture, the green parts of plants use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen to it. These changes are the opposite of those _________8 in respiration. The _________9 is called photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water by the chloroplasts of plant cells in the _________10 of light. Oxygen is the product of the reaction. For _________11 molecule of carbon dioxide used, one molecule of oxygen is released.

7. a) has known b) was known c) had been known d) has been known
8. a) occurred b) occur c) when occurring d) which occur
9. a) process b) progress c) advancement d) affair
10. a) presence b) presently c) presentation d) present
11. a) all b) each c) some d) none


Text 2.

There are many ways of communicating without using speech. People often prefer _________12 signals, signs, symbols, and gestures to communicating through speech in every known culture. The basic function of a signal is _________13 the environment in such a way that it attracts attention, as, for example, the dots and dashes of a telegraph circuit. Coded to refer to speech, its potential for communication is very great. Signs _________14 greater meaning in themselves although they are less adaptable to the codification of speech. For example, the color pattern of a barber pole conveys meaning quickly and conveniently. Symbols are more difficult to describe than either signals or signs _________15 their intricate relationship with the receiver’s cultural perceptions. In some cultures, applauding in a theatre _________16 performers with an auditory symbol of approval. Gestures such as waving and handshaking also communicate certain cultural messages.

12. a) using b) use c) having used d) to use
13. a) being affected b) affected c) to affect d) having affected
14. a) contain b) impress c) consist d) inform
15. a) despite b) because of c) though d) as well as
16. a) prevents b) permits c) provides d) protects

Text 3.

Which is more harmful: diet or tobacco? Diet is second only to tobacco as a leading cause of cancer and, along with alcohol, is _________17 for nearly a third of all cases of the disease in developed countries, a leading researcher said on Tuesday.
Dr Tim Key, who is _________18 research at the University of Oxford, said that scientists are still discovering how certain foods _________19 to cancer but they know that diet, alcohol and obesity play a major role. "Five percent of cancers could be _________20 if nobody was obese," he said. While tobacco is linked to about 30 percent of cancer cases, diet is involved in 25 percent and alcohol in about six percent." _________21 500 cases, we know that obesity and alcohol are important," said Key.
Obesity raises the risk of breast, womb, bowel and kidney cancer, while alcohol is known to cause cancers of the mouth, throat and liver. Its dangerous _________22 is increased when combined with smoking. _________23 both alcohol consumption and obesity rates are rising in many countries is another fact which needs to be studied.
Key said that other elements of diet linked to cancer are still unknown, but scientists are hoping that the EPIC study, which is comparing the diets of 500,000 people in 10 countries and their risk of cancer, _________24 some answers.
Early results of the study have _________25 that Norway, Sweden and Denmark have the lowest consumption of fruit and vegetables among European countries, while Italy and Spain have the highest. Eating at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day is recommended to reduce the risk of cancer.


17. a) guilty b) hazardous c) responsible d) available
18. a) carrying out b) working out c) holding up d) turning up
19. a) contribute b) donate c) expose d) commit
20. a) escaped b) diagnosed c) estimated d) avoided
21. a) Observed c) Being observed
b) Having observed d) Having been observed
22. a) assumption b) impression c) solution d) impact
23. a) When b) What c) Why d) Where
24. a) will provide c) will have provided
b) are providing d) is providing
25. a) extracted b) revealed c) emerged d) covered





Text 4.


We owe our ability to explore sea and ocean depths to technology. Recent technological advances in manned and unmanned undersea vehicles _________26some of the limitations of divers and diving equipment. Without a vehicle, divers often became lazy and slow and their mental concentration became limited. Because of undersea pressure which affected their speech organs, communication among divers used to be difficult or impossible, which _________27 their work. _________28, today most oceanographers make observations by means of modern instruments which are lowered into the ocean or from samples taken from the water. Direct observations of the ocean floor are made not only by divers but also by deep-diving submarines. Some of these submarines can dive to depths of more than seven miles and cruise at depths of fifteen thousand feet. Radio-equipped buoys can be operated by remote control _________29 data about water, temperature, currents and weather can be transmitted back to land-based laboratories. As can be seen, if such technical devices _________30 over the years, it would be very difficult to make observations in the depths of the oceans today.

26. a) had overcome c) overcome
b) will have overcome d) have overcome
27. a) slowed down c) can’t have slowed down
b) has slowed down d) should have slowed down
28. a) Besides b) All in all c) However d) Even though
29. a) so as to b) so that c) such a way that d) as such
30. a) haven’t been improved c) weren’t improved
b) hadn’t been improved d) aren’t improved



Text 5.


A conference was held in The Hague last month with the aim of reducing emissions. Ministers at the conference told the world’s press that they hadn’t succeeded _________31 an agreement on ‘greenhouse gas’ emissions, which raise the Earth’s temperature. Scientists warned that this would result in _________32 pollution than before and a greater risk of disasters across the globe. A United Nations representative said the conference had been organised to reach agreements on reducing emissions. It was a follow-up to the 1997

conference in Kyoto, Japan, when governments promised they would reduce emissions of carbon-based gases _________33 1990 levels by 2012. In Kyoto, the European Union agreed to cut emissions by 8%, Japan by 6%, and the USA by 7%. At the conference in The Hague, Britain declared that it was one of the few countries _________34 its emissions, but critics asked if this was due to government policy _________35 the decline in the coal industry. The EU _________36 the USA (the world’s biggest polluter producing 24% of the world’s emissions) that it had not met its targets. The USA firmly denied it was making excuses and said the targets were _________37 unrealistic that it was difficult to meet them.
_________38, some government ministers reluctantly admitted that they might need to cut global emissions by up to 60% in the long-term. However, many developing countries refused to sign any pollution agreements; they said it would harm their _________39 and insisted that the developed countries lead _________40 way. As a result, the developed countries should make everyone _________41 that it is important to meet the targets mentioned as soon as possible.


31. a) reaching b) to reach c) in reaching d) as to reach
32. a) much b) more c) less d) fewer
33. a) down b) beneath c) underneath d) below
34. a) reduce b) reduced c) being reduced d) reducing
35. a) and b) or c) nor d) not
36. a) reminded b) remembered c) recalled d) retained
37. a) too b) very c) so d) such
38. a) Having warned c) To be warned
b) Warning d) Having been warned
39. a) economic development c) economical development
b) developing economically d) developing economic
40. a) a b) some c) the d) O
41. a) to notice b) notice c) to be noticed d) noticed













SECTION III. READING/ Questions 42- 65 (24 x 1.5 = 36 points)
Text 1.
Three sentences have been deleted from the text below. Choose the alternative (A - D) that would best fit in each blank (42 –44) and mark your choice on the answer sheet. There is one extra sentence which you don’t need to use.

Desperate Afghan Women Choose Fiery Suicides

Nineteen-year-old Zahara says the day of her wedding was one of the happiest of her life. But the marriage quickly became a nightmare of quarrels and beatings. Just three months later, she lies in hospital, her pretty face and much of her body scarred by horrific burns, after she poured petrol over her head and lit a match. (42) _______
Zahara is one of many women to attempt suicide rather than be trapped in an unhappy marriage. Lying on a filthy hospital bed in the city of Herat, she clearly found it painful to speak. "My body was black from beatings," she said. "I was happy to kill myself because life was unbearable." Zahara said her husband insulted her when she said she wanted to return to her family and threatened her with a gun. (43) _______ "He thought I was joking, but I took the matches and set myself on fire," she said. Zahara is fortunate to come from a closely knit family which plans to take her to Iran for treatment soon.
In the past year, the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission has recorded at least 110 cases of self-immolation (killing oneself by burning) by women in just five parts of the country. There have been no fewer than 56 cases in Herat, a Western province ruled by a forceful Islamist accused of continuing "Taliban-like" restrictions on women.
The Rights Commission blamed Herat's high number of suicides on both domestic violence and restrictions on women's rights imposed by Governor Ismail Khan. While Khan supports female education, women's job opportunities are sharply reduced in Herat and all women are still expected to wear cover-all burqas or Iranian-style veils whenever they go out.
Marjo Stroud, of the German NGO Medica Mondiale in Herat says depression rates among women are extremely high. The main reason for this seems to be lack of hope. (44) ______ "Even if their families support them, they don't know if their job opportunities might suddenly end." Khan has, for instance, discouraged women from joining nongovernmental organizations, saying that Afghans who allowed their wives to work with foreign men could not be real men. Women have also been banned from working in tailors' shops because of "the potential for un-Islamic activity" and the only driving school for women has been shut down.

A. Eventually he said she should kill herself if she was so unhappy.
B. What is more, the drugs against depression are very rare and expensive in Afghanistan.
C. "Many young women are afraid that their dreams of getting a career will never come true," she said.
D. In post-Taliban Afghanistan, despite the new laws protecting women's rights that the Western-backed government passed in January, this remains a depressingly familiar story.







Text 2. Read the text and choose the alternative that best answers each question.

Hair Loss

I. British men are most likely to worry about receding hairlines but are the least likely to do anything about the problem. Only Germans take the issue as seriously as their European neighbors, but they use hair-loss treatments, while Britons shave off what little they have, according to a poll published Tuesday. "There are so many myths and misconceptions about hair loss, and so, a lot of men are quite understandably suspicious of so-called miracle cures," said Dr Tim Mitchell. "But we can do a great deal more for men who are losing their hair than even a few years ago," he added in a statement. In a poll of 1,500 men in Britain, Spain, Germany, France and Italy, Britons and Germans were most likely to admit their hair loss made them feel old, less attractive and more self-doubting. Men in Spain, Germany and France dedicated more of their time and money to hair care than those in Italy or Britain. Spaniards and Germans said tackling the problem was particularly important to them and if a treatment helped, it made them feel healthier, more attractive and confident.
II. Hair loss affects about 50 percent of adult men. Male patterned hair loss (MPHL), or androgenetica alopecia, is the most common form of hair loss in men. About 6.5 million men in Britain have mild to moderate MPHL. It is inherited from one or both parents. Their hair follicles - holes in the skin from which hairs grow - are oversensitive to the effects of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a male sex hormone which is converted from testosterone. Mitchell advised men suffering from hair loss to see their doctor or pharmacist early.

45. The text mainly discusses ________.
a) how European men view hair loss
b) miracle cures for hair loss
c) how German men handle the problem of hair loss
d) how to stop hair loss

46. Which of the following is TRUE?
a) German men use less hair loss treatment than British men.
b) Italian men spend more time on hair care than Spanish men.
c) German men believe bald men look more attractive.
d) British men worry about hair loss but do little about it.

47. The word ‘misconceptions’ in paragraph I is closest in meaning to ________.
a) useless drugs c) improvements
b) wrong beliefs d) useful drugs

48. The word ‘self-doubting’ in paragraph I is closest in meaning to ________.
a) self-confident b) selfish c) insecure d) handsome

49. What does those in paragraph I refer to?
a) Spain, Germany and France c) time and money
b) men in Spain, Germany and France d) men

50. What does their in paragraph II refer to?
a) both parents c) British men
b) men with MPHL d) adult men

Text 3. Read the text and choose the alternative that best answers each question.

Kyoto Protcol

I. The '''Kyoto Protocol''' was discussed in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997, opened for signature on March 16, 1998, and closed on March 15, 1999. Countries which approve this protocol will reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which increase global warming. The goal is to lower overall production of six greenhouse gases. National targets range from 8% reductions for the European Union to 7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia, and permitted increases of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland.
II. The protocol operates in an interesting way. Each country has agreed to limit emissions to the levels described in the protocol, but many countries have limits that are set above their current production. These extra amounts can be purchased by other countries on the open market. So, for instance, Russia currently easily meets its targets, and can sell off its ''credits'' for millions of dollars to countries that don't yet meet their targets, Canada for instance. This rewards countries that meet their targets, and provides financial support to others to do so as soon as possible.
III. As of February 2002, the agreement had been ratified by 104 countries, representing 43.9% of emissions. Countries do not need to sign the treaty in order to ratify it; signing is a symbolic act only. A total of 19 countries had signed the protocol but not ratified it. The remaining 58 countries had neither signed nor ratified the protocol.
IV. The protocol left several issues open, to be decided later. They tried to resolve these issues at a meeting in 2000, but it wasn’t possible to reach an agreement due to clashes between the European Union on the one hand (which demanded a stricter agreement) and the United States, Canada, Japan and Australia on the other (which wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible).
V. The Kyoto Protocol limits emissions to a percentage increase or decrease from their 1990 levels. Since 1990, the economies of most countries in the former Soviet Union have collapsed. Because of this, Russia should have no problem with Kyoto, as its current emission levels are considerably below its targets. Therefore, Russia was expected to approve the treaty. However, those who had hoped Russia would approve were disappointed in 2003 when Putin indicated his unwillingness to sign. The reason for this was the open criticism by Russian scientists for the scientific basis of Kyoto - the hypothesis that CO2 is a major cause of world climate change.
VI. The United States has neither approved nor withdrawn from the protocol. George W. Bush has indicated that he does not want to sign the treaty because he is not contented with the details of the treaty. He said of the treaty: "The world's second-largest emitter of greenhouse gases is China. Yet, China is entirely free from the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. This is unfair."
VII. Supporters of the Kyoto Protocol claim that reducing these emissions is very important; carbon dioxide, they believe

Beğeniler: 1
Favoriler: 0
İzlenmeler: 8091
favori
like
share
elifturkmen Tarih: 06.08.2011 10:22
merhaba. okuma parçalarının cevap anahtarını nerede bulabilirm. Acil cevap verirseniz pazartesi sınav var
hicbirsey2001 Tarih: 23.08.2007 15:18
İsterseniz bu dökümanları kendi formatlarında BURADAN da indirebilirsiniz
hicbirsey2001 Tarih: 23.08.2007 15:15
SECTION I. LISTENING/ Questions 1- 6 (6 x 1.5 = 9 pts)
Choose the most suitable alternative to complete each of the following sentences according to the text you heard.

1. The rainbow _______________.
a) appears during sunset
b) is violet on the outside and red on the inside
c) is a broken optical spectrum of light
d) is an optical and meteorological phenomenon

2. The rainbow effect can be observed when __________________.
a) the sun shines from behind the observer at a low angle or height
b) the whole sky is dark with clouds
c) waterfalls release vapor on a cloudy day
d) the observer is near a river

3. Isaac Newton showed that _______________.
a) the rainbow does not contain the color blue
b) moonbows are white
c) the rainbow actually exists in the sky
d) white light contained all the colors of the rainbow

4. A second, dimmer rainbow ________________.
a) is caused by a double reflection of the sunlight
b) is seen inside the primary bow
c) appears at an angle of 15 degrees
d) is red on the outside and violet on the inside

5. According to __________, the rainbow is a sign of God's contract with mankind.
a) Galileo
b) The Bible
c) Greek mythology
d) American Indian mythology

6. In __________________, the rainbow was a door to stop humans from leaving the world.
a) Chinese mythology c) American mythology
b) Hindu mythology d) Indian mythology








SECTION II. USE of ENGLISH/ Questions 7- 41 (35 x 1 = 35 points)
Choose the alternative that best fits in each blank to make the text meaningful.

Text 1.

Scientists revealed the secret world of plants long ago. It _________7 for many years that when exposed to light under suitable conditions of temperature and moisture, the green parts of plants use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen to it. These changes are the opposite of those _________8 in respiration. The _________9 is called photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water by the chloroplasts of plant cells in the _________10 of light. Oxygen is the product of the reaction. For _________11 molecule of carbon dioxide used, one molecule of oxygen is released.

7. a) has known b) was known c) had been known d) has been known
8. a) occurred b) occur c) when occurring d) which occur
9. a) process b) progress c) advancement d) affair
10. a) presence b) presently c) presentation d) present
11. a) all b) each c) some d) none


Text 2.

There are many ways of communicating without using speech. People often prefer _________12 signals, signs, symbols, and gestures to communicating through speech in every known culture. The basic function of a signal is _________13 the environment in such a way that it attracts attention, as, for example, the dots and dashes of a telegraph circuit. Coded to refer to speech, its potential for communication is very great. Signs _________14 greater meaning in themselves although they are less adaptable to the codification of speech. For example, the color pattern of a barber pole conveys meaning quickly and conveniently. Symbols are more difficult to describe than either signals or signs _________15 their intricate relationship with the receiver’s cultural perceptions. In some cultures, applauding in a theatre _________16 performers with an auditory symbol of approval. Gestures such as waving and handshaking also communicate certain cultural messages.

12. a) using b) use c) having used d) to use
13. a) being affected b) affected c) to affect d) having affected
14. a) contain b) impress c) consist d) inform
15. a) despite b) because of c) though d) as well as
16. a) prevents b) permits c) provides d) protects

Text 3.

Which is more harmful: diet or tobacco? Diet is second only to tobacco as a leading cause of cancer and, along with alcohol, is _________17 for nearly a third of all cases of the disease in developed countries, a leading researcher said on Tuesday.
Dr Tim Key, who is _________18 research at the University of Oxford, said that scientists are still discovering how certain foods _________19 to cancer but they know that diet, alcohol and obesity play a major role. "Five percent of cancers could be _________20 if nobody was obese," he said. While tobacco is linked to about 30 percent of cancer cases, diet is involved in 25 percent and alcohol in about six percent." _________21 500 cases, we know that obesity and alcohol are important," said Key.
Obesity raises the risk of breast, womb, bowel and kidney cancer, while alcohol is known to cause cancers of the mouth, throat and liver. Its dangerous _________22 is increased when combined with smoking. _________23 both alcohol consumption and obesity rates are rising in many countries is another fact which needs to be studied.
Key said that other elements of diet linked to cancer are still unknown, but scientists are hoping that the EPIC study, which is comparing the diets of 500,000 people in 10 countries and their risk of cancer, _________24 some answers.
Early results of the study have _________25 that Norway, Sweden and Denmark have the lowest consumption of fruit and vegetables among European countries, while Italy and Spain have the highest. Eating at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day is recommended to reduce the risk of cancer.


17. a) guilty b) hazardous c) responsible d) available
18. a) carrying out b) working out c) holding up d) turning up
19. a) contribute b) donate c) expose d) commit
20. a) escaped b) diagnosed c) estimated d) avoided
21. a) Observed c) Being observed
b) Having observed d) Having been observed
22. a) assumption b) impression c) solution d) impact
23. a) When b) What c) Why d) Where
24. a) will provide c) will have provided
b) are providing d) is providing
25. a) extracted b) revealed c) emerged d) covered





Text 4.


We owe our ability to explore sea and ocean depths to technology. Recent technological advances in manned and unmanned undersea vehicles _________26some of the limitations of divers and diving equipment. Without a vehicle, divers often became lazy and slow and their mental concentration became limited. Because of undersea pressure which affected their speech organs, communication among divers used to be difficult or impossible, which _________27 their work. _________28, today most oceanographers make observations by means of modern instruments which are lowered into the ocean or from samples taken from the water. Direct observations of the ocean floor are made not only by divers but also by deep-diving submarines. Some of these submarines can dive to depths of more than seven miles and cruise at depths of fifteen thousand feet. Radio-equipped buoys can be operated by remote control _________29 data about water, temperature, currents and weather can be transmitted back to land-based laboratories. As can be seen, if such technical devices _________30 over the years, it would be very difficult to make observations in the depths of the oceans today.

26. a) had overcome c) overcome
b) will have overcome d) have overcome
27. a) slowed down c) can’t have slowed down
b) has slowed down d) should have slowed down
28. a) Besides b) All in all c) However d) Even though
29. a) so as to b) so that c) such a way that d) as such
30. a) haven’t been improved c) weren’t improved
b) hadn’t been improved d) aren’t improved



Text 5.


A conference was held in The Hague last month with the aim of reducing emissions. Ministers at the conference told the world’s press that they hadn’t succeeded _________31 an agreement on ‘greenhouse gas’ emissions, which raise the Earth’s temperature. Scientists warned that this would result in _________32 pollution than before and a greater risk of disasters across the globe. A United Nations representative said the conference had been organised to reach agreements on reducing emissions. It was a follow-up to the 1997

conference in Kyoto, Japan, when governments promised they would reduce emissions of carbon-based gases _________33 1990 levels by 2012. In Kyoto, the European Union agreed to cut emissions by 8%, Japan by 6%, and the USA by 7%. At the conference in The Hague, Britain declared that it was one of the few countries _________34 its emissions, but critics asked if this was due to government policy _________35 the decline in the coal industry. The EU _________36 the USA (the world’s biggest polluter producing 24% of the world’s emissions) that it had not met its targets. The USA firmly denied it was making excuses and said the targets were _________37 unrealistic that it was difficult to meet them.
_________38, some government ministers reluctantly admitted that they might need to cut global emissions by up to 60% in the long-term. However, many developing countries refused to sign any pollution agreements; they said it would harm their _________39 and insisted that the developed countries lead _________40 way. As a result, the developed countries should make everyone _________41 that it is important to meet the targets mentioned as soon as possible.


31. a) reaching b) to reach c) in reaching d) as to reach
32. a) much b) more c) less d) fewer
33. a) down b) beneath c) underneath d) below
34. a) reduce b) reduced c) being reduced d) reducing
35. a) and b) or c) nor d) not
36. a) reminded b) remembered c) recalled d) retained
37. a) too b) very c) so d) such
38. a) Having warned c) To be warned
b) Warning d) Having been warned
39. a) economic development c) economical development
b) developing economically d) developing economic
40. a) a b) some c) the d) O
41. a) to notice b) notice c) to be noticed d) noticed













SECTION III. READING/ Questions 42- 65 (24 x 1.5 = 36 points)
Text 1.
Three sentences have been deleted from the text below. Choose the alternative (A - D) that would best fit in each blank (42 –44) and mark your choice on the answer sheet. There is one extra sentence which you don’t need to use.

Desperate Afghan Women Choose Fiery Suicides

Nineteen-year-old Zahara says the day of her wedding was one of the happiest of her life. But the marriage quickly became a nightmare of quarrels and beatings. Just three months later, she lies in hospital, her pretty face and much of her body scarred by horrific burns, after she poured petrol over her head and lit a match. (42) _______
Zahara is one of many women to attempt suicide rather than be trapped in an unhappy marriage. Lying on a filthy hospital bed in the city of Herat, she clearly found it painful to speak. "My body was black from beatings," she said. "I was happy to kill myself because life was unbearable." Zahara said her husband insulted her when she said she wanted to return to her family and threatened her with a gun. (43) _______ "He thought I was joking, but I took the matches and set myself on fire," she said. Zahara is fortunate to come from a closely knit family which plans to take her to Iran for treatment soon.
In the past year, the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission has recorded at least 110 cases of self-immolation (killing oneself by burning) by women in just five parts of the country. There have been no fewer than 56 cases in Herat, a Western province ruled by a forceful Islamist accused of continuing "Taliban-like" restrictions on women.
The Rights Commission blamed Herat's high number of suicides on both domestic violence and restrictions on women's rights imposed by Governor Ismail Khan. While Khan supports female education, women's job opportunities are sharply reduced in Herat and all women are still expected to wear cover-all burqas or Iranian-style veils whenever they go out.
Marjo Stroud, of the German NGO Medica Mondiale in Herat says depression rates among women are extremely high. The main reason for this seems to be lack of hope. (44) ______ "Even if their families support them, they don't know if their job opportunities might suddenly end." Khan has, for instance, discouraged women from joining nongovernmental organizations, saying that Afghans who allowed their wives to work with foreign men could not be real men. Women have also been banned from working in tailors' shops because of "the potential for un-Islamic activity" and the only driving school for women has been shut down.

A. Eventually he said she should kill herself if she was so unhappy.
B. What is more, the drugs against depression are very rare and expensive in Afghanistan.
C. "Many young women are afraid that their dreams of getting a career will never come true," she said.
D. In post-Taliban Afghanistan, despite the new laws protecting women's rights that the Western-backed government passed in January, this remains a depressingly familiar story.







Text 2. Read the text and choose the alternative that best answers each question.

Hair Loss

I. British men are most likely to worry about receding hairlines but are the least likely to do anything about the problem. Only Germans take the issue as seriously as their European neighbors, but they use hair-loss treatments, while Britons shave off what little they have, according to a poll published Tuesday. "There are so many myths and misconceptions about hair loss, and so, a lot of men are quite understandably suspicious of so-called miracle cures," said Dr Tim Mitchell. "But we can do a great deal more for men who are losing their hair than even a few years ago," he added in a statement. In a poll of 1,500 men in Britain, Spain, Germany, France and Italy, Britons and Germans were most likely to admit their hair loss made them feel old, less attractive and more self-doubting. Men in Spain, Germany and France dedicated more of their time and money to hair care than those in Italy or Britain. Spaniards and Germans said tackling the problem was particularly important to them and if a treatment helped, it made them feel healthier, more attractive and confident.
II. Hair loss affects about 50 percent of adult men. Male patterned hair loss (MPHL), or androgenetica alopecia, is the most common form of hair loss in men. About 6.5 million men in Britain have mild to moderate MPHL. It is inherited from one or both parents. Their hair follicles - holes in the skin from which hairs grow - are oversensitive to the effects of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a male sex hormone which is converted from testosterone. Mitchell advised men suffering from hair loss to see their doctor or pharmacist early.

45. The text mainly discusses ________.
a) how European men view hair loss
b) miracle cures for hair loss
c) how German men handle the problem of hair loss
d) how to stop hair loss

46. Which of the following is TRUE?
a) German men use less hair loss treatment than British men.
b) Italian men spend more time on hair care than Spanish men.
c) German men believe bald men look more attractive.
d) British men worry about hair loss but do little about it.

47. The word ‘misconceptions’ in paragraph I is closest in meaning to ________.
a) useless drugs c) improvements
b) wrong beliefs d) useful drugs

48. The word ‘self-doubting’ in paragraph I is closest in meaning to ________.
a) self-confident b) selfish c) insecure d) handsome

49. What does those in paragraph I refer to?
a) Spain, Germany and France c) time and money
b) men in Spain, Germany and France d) men

50. What does their in paragraph II refer to?
a) both parents c) British men
b) men with MPHL d) adult men

Text 3. Read the text and choose the alternative that best answers each question.

Kyoto Protcol

I. The '''Kyoto Protocol''' was discussed in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997, opened for signature on March 16, 1998, and closed on March 15, 1999. Countries which approve this protocol will reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which increase global warming. The goal is to lower overall production of six greenhouse gases. National targets range from 8% reductions for the European Union to 7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia, and permitted increases of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland.
II. The protocol operates in an interesting way. Each country has agreed to limit emissions to the levels described in the protocol, but many countries have limits that are set above their current production. These extra amounts can be purchased by other countries on the open market. So, for instance, Russia currently easily meets its targets, and can sell off its ''credits'' for millions of dollars to countries that don't yet meet their targets, Canada for instance. This rewards countries that meet their targets, and provides financial support to others to do so as soon as possible.
III. As of February 2002, the agreement had been ratified by 104 countries, representing 43.9% of emissions. Countries do not need to sign the treaty in order to ratify it; signing is a symbolic act only. A total of 19 countries had signed the protocol but not ratified it. The remaining 58 countries had neither signed nor ratified the protocol.
IV. The protocol left several issues open, to be decided later. They tried to resolve these issues at a meeting in 2000, but it wasn’t possible to reach an agreement due to clashes between the European Union on the one hand (which demanded a stricter agreement) and the United States, Canada, Japan and Australia on the other (which wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible).
V. The Kyoto Protocol limits emissions to a percentage increase or decrease from their 1990 levels. Since 1990, the economies of most countries in the former Soviet Union have collapsed. Because of this, Russia should have no problem with Kyoto, as its current emission levels are considerably below its targets. Therefore, Russia was expected to approve the treaty. However, those who had hoped Russia would approve were disappointed in 2003 when Putin indicated his unwillingness to sign. The reason for this was the open criticism by Russian scientists for the scientific basis of Kyoto - the hypothesis that CO2 is a major cause of world climate change.
VI. The United States has neither approved nor withdrawn from the protocol. George W. Bush has indicated that he does not want to sign the treaty because he is not contented with the details of the treaty. He said of the treaty: "The world's second-largest emitter of greenhouse gases is China. Yet, China is entirely free from the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. This is unfair."
VII. Supporters of the Kyoto Protocol claim that reducing these emissions is very important; carbon dioxide, they believe, is causing the earth's atmosphere to heat up too much. However, some opponents state that the protocol will prevent or damage economic growth. They say the protocol is dangerously simplistic and economically destructive to jobs and standards-of-living. Some other opponents argue that the protocol does not go far ''enough'' to control greenhouse emissions, and the standards it sets will be totally ineffective at controlling or even slowing climate change.
VIII. The Kyoto Protocol can also be opposed by comparing costs and gains. Several economic analyses were made that show that the Kyoto Protocol is more expensive than the global warming that it intends to avoid. Supporters of the Kyoto Protocol argue, however, that while the initial greenhouse gas cuts may have little effect, they set the political example for bigger and more effective cuts in the future.
IX. Some theorists predict that even if the world's leading industrial nations agree to reduce their "greenhouse" emissions, it is likely that there would be no net change in emissions worldwide. As the industrialized countries cut their demand for fossil fuels, the law of supply and demand will tend to cause the world prices of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas to plunge, and make fuel use more affordable for poorer nations. These theorists predict increased fuel use (primarily coal) in the poorer countries.
51. The Kyoto Protocol ________.
a) aims at increasing global warming by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases
b) was signed in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan
c) was designed by Japan to be discussed in the city of Kyoto
d) permits some countries to increase their emissions of greenhouse gases

52. According to the Protocol, Canada ________.
a) has no limits to its production of greenhouse gases
b) does not produce any greenhouse gases
c) can increase its limits by buying credits from such countries as Russia
d) will get financial support from Russia to improve its production systems

53. The word ‘ratified’in paragraph III is closest in meaning to ________.
a) accepted
b) rejected
c) represented
d) claimed

54. The word ‘clashes’ in paragraph IV is closest in meaning to ________.
a) discouragement
b) disagreement
c) flexibility
d) feasibility

55. According to the text, _________.
a) Russia has approved the Kyoto Protocol
b) Russia has a considerable problem with its current emission levels
c) The Soviet Union collapsed because of the Kyoto Protocol
d) some Russian scientists believe CO2 is not a major cause of world climate
change

56. The word ‘contented’ in paragraph VI is closest in meaning to ________.
a) competed b) pleased c) pretended d) concluded

57. Supporters of the Kyoto Protocol think ________.
a) greenhouse gases heat up the world
b) the Protocol is dangerously simplistic
c) greenhouse gas cuts are already big enough
d) there will be no net change in emissions worldwide

58. Opponents of the Kyoto Protocol claim ________.
a) the Protocol will improve standards of living
b) the standards of the Protocol will slow down climate change
c) the application of the Protocol will cost more than the global warming that it
avoids
d) the Protocol has to be signed by China in order to reach the desired targets

59. The word ‘plunge’ in paragraph IX is closest in meaning to ________.
a) fall c) expand
b) increase d) extend


Text 4. Read the text and choose the alternative that best answers each question.

Electric Cars

I. One of the leading problems on our planet is that it’s running out of fossil fuels, one of which is petrol, the main source of energy for motor vehicles. For several years, motor companies have been trying to find alternative engine systems to replace the cars running on petrol. One suggested alternative was electric cars. However, most motor companies have already ceased their electric car productions. Ford is only one of them. The Ford Motor Company's abandonment of electric cars effectively signals the end of the road for the technology, analysts say. General Motors and Honda also stopped production of battery-powered cars in 1999, to focus on fuel cell and hybrid electric-petrol engines, which are more attractive to the consumer. Ford has now announced it will do the same. Three years ago, the company introduced the Think City two-seater car and a golf cart called the Think Neighbor. It hoped to sell 15,000 cars each year. But only 2700 cars were sold.
II. "The bottom line is we don't believe that this is the future of environmental transport for the mass market," Tim Holmes of Ford Europe said on Friday. "We feel we have given electric our best shot."
III. The Think City has a range of only about 53 miles and up to a six-hour battery recharge time. General Motors' EV1 electric vehicle also had a limited range, of about 100 miles. The very expensive batteries also mean electric cars cost much more than petrol-powered alternatives. An electric Toyota RAV4 EV vehicle costs over $42,000 in the US, compared with just $17,000 for the petrol version. Toyota and Nissan are now the only major auto manufacturers to produce electric vehicles.
IV. "There is a feeling that battery electric has been given its chance. Ford now has to move on with its hybrid program, and that is what we will be judging them on," Roger Higman, senior transport campaigner at UK Friends of the Earth, told the Environment News Service. Hybrid cars introduced by Toyota and Honda in the past few years have sold well. Hybrid engines, which are a combination of an electric engine and a petrol engine, offer greater mileage than petrol-only engines, and the batteries recharge themselves. Ford says it thinks such vehicles will help it meet planned new guidelines on vehicle emissions (harmful gases released into the air) in the US. However, it is not yet clear exactly what those guidelines will permit. In June 2002, General Motors and Daimler Chrysler won a court case, delaying the law requiring carmakers to offer 100,000 zero-emission and other low-emission vehicles in California by 2003. Car manufacturers hope the law will be rewritten to allow for more low-emission, rather than zero-emission, vehicles.

60. The word ‘ceased’ in paragraph I is closest in meaning to ________.
a) stopped c) increased
b) started d) advertised

61. The Ford Motor Company ________.
a) wants to start producing electric cars
b) has never produced electric cars
c) works with Honda to produce electric cars
d) will focus on fuel cell and hybrid electric-petrol engines




62. Which motor company still produces electric cars?
a) Nissan
b) Honda
c) Think City
d) General Motors

63. Which of the following sentences is TRUE according to the text?
a) Consumers prefer fuel cell to hybrid electric-petrol engines.
b) Petrol-powered cars are more expensive than electric cars.
c) The Think City is a slower car than General Motors' EV1.
d) Ford sold fewer electric cars than they had expected.

64. Hybrid engines ________.
a) have been rejected by UK Friends of the Earth
b) run on electricity only
c) run on petrol only
d) run on both electricity and petrol

65. General Motors and Daimler Chrysler ________.
a) have stopped producing zero-emission vehicles
b) produced 100,000 zero-emission cars in 2003
c) want the government to change the law regarding car-emissions
d) cooperate to produce zero-emission cars in a few years


WRITING (20 points)
Write an essay of 250- 300 words on ONE of the topics given below. Your essay must have an introduction/ a clear thesis statement (with controlling idea/s), at least 2 body paragraphs with relevant supporting ideas and a conclusion. Your ideas should be organized properly.

1. In our country, it is very hard for young people to get a job as soon as they graduate from the university. So they are either unemployed or end up doing jobs which they have no interest in. Discuss the causes of this.

2. Discuss the reasons why parents in especially East Anatolia do not let their daughters go to school.

3. How does travelling to different countries affect a person in general?

4. Discuss the possible effects of the Nato Conference to be held on June 28-29, 2004 on Istanbul and its people.
hicbirsey2001 Tarih: 23.08.2007 15:15
VOCAB REVIEW (I)
Fill in the blanks with suitable words, but REMEMBER TO MAKE ANY NECESSARY CHANGES!

Discernible Associate Raise Result from Devote
Remain Retain Link Lead to Severely
Interfere Rise Bring in Bring up Result in
Exposure Get on Thoroughly Wear out


1. It is a widely known fact that people who use drugs are …………….…… punished in China and some other Asian countries.

2. The new Director is said to have …………..….. himself to finding out solutions to his employees’ problems! We are damn lucky, I guess!

3. Since there is no concrete evidence regarding the creators of these crop circle phenomenon, the issue still ……………… a mystery.

4. Michael Moore’s latest book is believed to ………………. a great many heated debates among the ministers in the Congress.

5. It is claimed not only by doctors, but some dieticians as well that excessive …………..… to sunlight may ………….……. serious skin diseases.

6. Jason and his elder brother ………..…….. in a small town in a closed society, so they cannot show their emotions easily.

7. I can’t understand why some parents ………..…….. their child’s psychological problems only to his/her school life!

8. Some businessmen find it difficult to …………..… with their weekly schedules on their own when their secretaries are on holiday!

9. I’m sorry I cannot join you tonight, for I feel …………….. after today’s 3-hour seminar.

10. Look! If you keep …………. in my private life, I will not let you visit me again!

11. Despite the recent economic reforms, there has been no ……………. difference in the quality of our life.





Key: severely – devoted – remains – stir – exposure/lead to – were raised – link –
get on – worn out - discernible
hicbirsey2001 Tarih: 23.08.2007 15:15
SAMPLE OPINION ESSAY
Topic. "Capital punishment is a suitable punishment for murderers. " You can either agree OR disagree as long as you support your opinion. Organize your thoughts and write an essay of 250- 300 words.

To Kill Or Not To Kill(1)

No society is perfect, so every society has crime and if it has crime it also needs punishment. (2) Usually murder is considered the most serious crime, and some societies insist that the criminal receive the same punishment as he/she has given to the victim. This is called capital punishment and it is not a good thing(3) because it lowers society to the level of the criminal and it also ignores the fact that people are not infallible. (4)
Firstly(5), when a society treats a criminal like he/she has treated someone else, that whole society lowers itself to the level of the criminal.(6) It lets the criminal determine what society should do. In effect we are saying, "Killing is bad, so we are going to kill you!" If we kill the killer, we are becoming just as violent as that person. (7)
Furthermore,(8) capital punishment is wrong because it assumes that people can make a judgement that is perfectly right. Once a person has been executed, he/she cannot be brought back to life if it is later discovered that a mistake has been made. One of the last people to receive capital punishment in England was convicted on the testimony of an older man who was later discovered to have been the real murderer. The guilty man escaped punishment and a judge and jury were convinced that an innocent man was guilty. (9) We are not God. We don't know everything, so we can't be right all the time.
There are many ways of dealing with criminals, but capital punishment is an unsuitable one because it fails to take into account that every person can make a mistake. In addition, killing people is a strange and illogical way for a society to tell people that murder is bad. (10) Yes, murder is a terrible crime, but it is even worse when a society does it. Instead of one person being a killer we all become killers. (11)

(1) A title is a useful way of attracting attention to your topic
(2) Your introduction should begin with a fairly general statement
(3) Your thesis should make your opinion/position on the topic clear
(4) The controlling ideas should be clearly stated.
(5) Linking word
(6) Topic sentence
(7) The final sentence of a paragraph should briefly sum up the paragraph.
(8) Linking word
(9) Example supporting topic (10) Recapitulation/restatement of thesis
(11) Final thought




ESSAY WRITING MODEL + GUIDE

1. Why isn’t To Kill Or Not To Kill written at the top of the page?
2. How many paragraphs are there in the essay?

Introduction

1. Which is the most general statement?
2. Which is the Thesis Statement?
3. What is the purpose of the statement “… and it is not a good thing…”? How else can the writer express this idea, which other words can he use?
4. How many controlling ideas are given?
5. Which word is used to connect the main idea (opinion) and the controlling ideas? Which other words can be used here?
6. Why doesn’t the writer just say “This is called capital punishment and it is not a good thing for two main reasons”?

Body paragraph 1

1. Which word is used to start the paragraph? Which other words or phrases can be used here?
2. Does the Topic Sentence refer to the Thesis Statement in anyway? How?
3. Does the Topic Sentence refer to one part of the controlling ideas or to both of them?
4. Do the following sentences support the Topic Sentence?
5. What is the purpose of the last sentence in the paragraph?
6. How many sentences in the paragraph?

Body Paragraph 2

1. Which word is used to link this paragraph with the previous one? Which other words could be used in its place?
2. Which part of the Thesis Statement does the Topic Sentence refer to?
3. What are the roles of the sentences following the Topic Sentence?
4. What does the writer use to strengthen his argument?
5. Do the supporting sentences refer to the topic of Body Paragraph 1?

Conclusion

1. How does the writer refer to his Thesis Statement in the conclusion?
2. Does he repeat his Thesis Statement or does he restate it using different words?
3. Does the writer introduce any new information (or give any facts, examples or statistics) in the conclusion?
4. Does the writer summarize his main ideas in the conclusion?
5. Why is the last sentence short and lacking in detail?


ANSWER KEY

1. Because it’s not the title of the essay, it’s the writer’s personal title. The official title should be written at the top of the page so the reader knows what he/she is going to read (and so the examiner knows which essay he is evaluating!!)
2. Four: (i) Introduction; (ii) Body 1; (iii) Body 2; (iv) Conclusion


Introduction
1. The first one (“No society…”
2. “This is called capital punishment and …”
3. To give the writer’s main idea, his opinion in regard to the title.
4. Two: “it lowers society to the level of the criminal” and “it also ignores the fact…”
5. “…because…”. Also “as” and “due to the fact that” can be used.
6. Because it doesn’t specify the controlling ideas. The reader needs to know what he is reading and needs to know what to expect. “… for two main reasons…” leaves the essay open and undecided.

Body Paragraph 1
1. “Firstly…” Alternatives: “First of all…” “To begin with…” “One of the reasons…”
2. Yes, it does. The Topic Sentence refers to one of the controlling ideas.
3. It refers to just one controlling idea.
4. Yes, of course!
5. To summarize briefly the main point(s) of the paragraph.
6. Four. (Each body paragraph should have a minimum of 4 sentences).

Body Paragraph 2
1. “Furthermore…” Alternatives: “In addition…” “Moreover…” “Secondly…” “Another reason…” “Not only…”
2. The Topic Sentence refers to the second controlling idea.
3. To support the Topic Sentence.
4. He uses an example.
5. No!

Conclusion
1. He restates the Thesis Statement using different words. (Introduction: “…capital punishment is not a good thing…” Conclusion: “…capital punishment is an unsuitable one…”.
2. He restates it using different words (synonyms, etc.)
3. No.
4. Yes- “…because it fails to take into account…” and “… killing people is a strange and illogical…” (these summarize the two topics).
5. Because it is a final thought and it ends the essay, it isn’t starting a new one. It is also short but powerful and leaves the reader with a strong final thought.
hicbirsey2001 Tarih: 23.08.2007 15:14
Sample cause/ effect essay- cause only
“Why are cities getting overcrowded?”

The fact that the world’s cities are getting more and more crowded is a well-documented demographical fact. Cities such as Tokyo, Sao Paolo, Bombay and Shanghai are now considered ‘mega-cities’, reflecting their enormous size and huge populations, which in many cases is around the twenty million-mark. There are two main reasons why these and other cities are becoming so crowded: one economic and the other socio-cultural.

Undoubtedly, the primary cause for cities becoming so crowded is economic. As a country develops, its cities become the engines of development. Therefore, many jobs are available in these areas. Frankfurt, Istanbul, Bombay and Sao Paolo, to name but a few, are all the economic centres of their countries. Tokyo, for example, was the motor for Japan’s rapid economic development in the 1960’s and 70’s; as a result, its population increased rapidly, as shown in Graph 1. People moved to Tokyo so that they could find jobs and establish economic security for themselves and their families.

A further factor in the huge increase in urban populations is the socio-cultural factor. Thousands of people migrate to the cities not only for jobs but also for educational and personal reasons. The better universities are always located in big cities and this attracts tens of thousands of students every year. These students usually stay on and work in the city after they graduate. Moreover, young people will move to the city as the villages and rural areas are often governed by custom and tradition, which they believe is an obstacle to their personal freedom.

In conclusion, we can say that amongst the many causes behind urban population density, the economic and cultural are the most significant. People always move to the areas which provide opportunity and the freedom they desire. It is now the responsibility of municipal councils to make sure these people are housed, clothed, fed and educated.














Population growth in Tokyo 1950-1995
(source: [url]http://www.worldhistory.com[/url])

Population (in millions)

30


25


20


15


10

x
5



.......... 1950 1970 1990 1995
hicbirsey2001 Tarih: 23.08.2007 15:14
1. Develop (v.) = geliştirmek / gelişmek
2. Permanent (adj.) = kalıcı, sürekli
3. Temporary (adj.) = geçici
4. Conform to (v.)= abide by, comply with, obey, kural vb. uymak
5. Unlike (prep.) = ….den farklı olarak
6. Interfere in / with (v.)= müdahale etmek, karışmak
7. Attitude (n.) = tavır, tutum
8. Depend on (v.) = dayanmak, bağlı olmak
9. Expose sth./ sbd. TO sth. = birini/bir şeyi bir şeye maruz bırakmak
10. Respond to (v.) = tepki vermek
11. Response (n.) = tepki
12. Afford to do sth. (v.)= bi işi yapmaya bütçesinin izin vermesi, altından kalkmak
13. Participate in (v.) = take part in, join, yer almak, katılmak
14. Participant (n.) = katılımcı
15. Identical (adj.) = aynısı
16. Make an attempt = teşebbüs etmek, kalkışmak, girişimde bulunmak
17. Grateful (adj.)= thankful, müteşekkir, minnettar
18. Unconsciously (adv.)= farkında olmadan
19. Ignore (v.)göz ardı etmek, hesaba katmamak
20. Influence (v.)= etkilemek
21. Interaction (n.)= etkileşim
22. Sensitive (adj.) = hassas (sensitive issue, sensitive person)
23. Sensible (adj.)= logical, reasonable, mantıklı
24. Monitor (v.) = observe, gözlemlemek
25. Be based on sth. = bir şeye dayanmak, dayandırılmak
26. As well as (prep.)= in addition to, …in yanı sıra
27. Reduce (v.) = azaltmak, azalmak
28. Variability (n.) = çeşitlilik, değişebilirlik
29. Lead a team, a group, etc. = bir grup, takım yönetmek, idare etmek
30. Variable (adj.) = değişebilir
31. Manage to do (v.) = bir şeyi yapmayı başarmak
32. Lead to (v.) = bring about, cause, produce, neden olmak
33. Measures (n.) = precautions, önlem (take measures, precaution)
34. Disobey (v.) = break, ignore, violate, kuralları ihlal etmek
35. Tend to do (v.) = bi şeyi yapma eğilimi göstermek

36. Take up (v.) = bir hobiye başlamak / yer kaplamak
37. Complement (v.) = tamamlamak
38. Occupy (v.) = meşgul etmek, yer tutmak
39. Illustration (n.) = resim
40. Sequence of events = olaylar sırası
41. Imaginative (adj.) = yaratıcı
42. Imagine (v.) = hayal etmek
43. Imaginary (adj.) = gerçek olmayan
44. Delightful (adj.)= zevkli, eğlenceli
45. Spoil (v.) = berbat etmek
46. Account for (v.) = make up, oluşturmak
47. Loss (n.) = kayıp, zarar
48. Accumulate (v.) = birikmek, biriktirmek
49. Pose (v.) = tehdit, problem oluşturmak
50. Threaten (v.) = tehdit etmek
51. Primarily (adv.) = mainly, esasen, öncelikle
52. Resistant to (adj.) = …’e dirençli
53. Modify (v.) = modifiye etmek, değişiklik yapmak
54. Administer (v.) = manage, yönetmek // apply, uygulamak
55. Application (n.) = 1. uygulama 2. başvurma
56. Severe (adj.) = harsh, sert, etkileyici – ama olumsuz (severe depression)
57. Trigger (v.) = start, launch, başlatmak, tetiklemek
58. Sample (n.) = örnek, numune
59. Volunteer (n.) (v.) = gönüllü, gönüllü olmak
60. Diminish (v.)= azalmak
61. Slow down (v.) = yavaşlamak, yavaşlatmak

62. Discrimination (n.) ayrımcılık
63. Obstacle (n. ) = hurdle, engel
64. Exclude from (v.) haricinde tutmak, dışlamak
65. Found (v.) = establish, şirket, ülke, dernek vs. kurmak
66. Attract (v. )= ilgi, dikkat çekmek
67. Alteration (n.) = change, değişim, değişiklik
68. Urge sbd. TO DO sth. (v.) = birinden bir şey yapmasını istemek, yapmaya itmek
69. Substantial (adj.) = considerable, remarkable, gözle görülür biçimde
70. Indistinguishable (adj.) = ayırt edilemez
71. Conventionally (adv.) = traditionally, geleneksel ya da sıradan bir şekilde
72. Concern (n.) = kaygı
73. Susceptible to.. (adj.) = vulnerable, open to attack, etkiye açık, savunmasız
74. Deserve (v.) = hak etmek
75. Dramatic (adj.) = ACIKLI DEĞİLLLL!!!! Remarkable, rapid, göze çarpar, hızlı
76. Prevent (v.) = engellemek
77. Costly (adj.) = expensive, maliyeti yüksek
78. Accomplish (v.) = achieve, bir görevi, hedefi yerine getirmek, tamamlamak
79. Extract (v.) = özünü çıkarmak
80. Astonish (v.) = amaze, hayrete düşürmek
81. Recover (v.) = iyileşmek
82. Challenge (n.) (v.) = zor durum, görev, vs. // meydan okumak
83. Remain (n.) (v.) = kalıntı // kalmak, durumunu muhafaza etmek (+ ADJ.)
84. Finding (n.) = bulgu
85. Date from (v.) = … tarihinden gelmek, ….’ya kadar uzanmak
86. Confuse (v.) = kafa karıştırmak
87. Assess (v.) = evaluate, değerlendirmek
88. Work out (v.) = hesaplamak, işe yaramak, antrenman yapmak
89. Range from… to …. (v.) = …dan ….ya uzanmak
90. As well as (prep.) = in addition to, …nın yanı sıra
91. Evolutionary (adj.) = evrim teorisine ait
92. Sequence (n.) = sıra
93. Vanish (v.) = disappear, yok olmak
94. Emerge (v.) = ortaya çıkmak
95. Replace (v.) = bir kimsenin/şeyin yerini almak

96. Susceptibility to …(n.) = vulnerability, …dan etkilenmeye açık
97. Particulars (n.) = details, detaylar
98. Infant (n.) = child, velet
99. Reveal (v.) = disclose, uncover, show, göstermek (research has revealed that)
100. Incidence (n.) = event, olay, durum
101. As opposed to… = …nın aksine
102. Decline (v.) (n.) = eğilimin azalması, azalma
103. Maturity (n.) = olgunluk
104. Likely (adj.) = probable, possible, olası
105. Income (n.) = gelir
106. Outcome (n.) = result, consequence, sonuç, netice
107. Exception (n.) = istisna
108. Infection (n.) = enfeksiyon
109. Reside (v.) = live, ikamet etmek
110. Residence (n.) = ikametgah
111. Resident (n.) = ikametgar kişi (!!!) yaşayan işte!
112. Adversely (n.) = negatively, olumsuz biçimde
113. Lower (v.) = decrease, azaltmak, düşürmek
114. Account for (v.) = neden olmak (an inadeauate diet a..r lowering resistance)
115. poor nutrition = zayıf beslenme
116. Sincerity (n.) = içtenlik
117. Honesty (n.) = dürüstlük
118. Credibility (n.) = inanılırlık, uff çok temiz ruhlu kelimeler oldu!!!
119. Awareness (n.) = farkındalık
120. Resolve (v.) = çözmek, problem, anlaşmazlık falan
121. Seek (v.) = look for, aramak – iş, fırsat, bela…
122. Supernatural (adj.) = SÜPER doğal diiil!!!! Doğaüstü demek!
123. on the contrary = bunun aksine
124. Arouse (v.) = cause, neden olmak
125. Arise (v.) = occur, meydana gelmek // arise from= caused by
126. Imaginary (adj.) = gerçek olmayan, hayali
127. Shelter (n.) = sığınak
128. Confront (v.) = face, come up against, karşı karşıya kalmak
129. Be disposed of (v.) = atılmak, hurdaya ayrılmak
130. Entirely (adv.) = wholly, tamamen
131. Contaminate (v.) = pollute, kirletmek
132. Hazardous (adj.) = dangerous , tehlikeli
133. Approve (v.) = onaylamak
134. Feasible (adj.) = possible, gerçekleştirilebilir
135. Adapt to … (v.) = adapte olmak
136. Adopt (v.) = uyarlamak, evlat edinmek
137. Incentive (n.)= motivasyon kaynağı
138. Contain (v.) = içermek, muhteva etmek
139. From a financial point of view= mali açıdan bakıldığında
140. Unbearable (adj.) = katlanılamaz

141. Trigger (v.)= start, launch, cause, başlatmak, tetiklemek, neden olmak
142. Disastrous (adj.) = devastating, felaket gibi, yıkıcı
143. Consequence (n.) = result, outcome, sonuç
144. Avoid (v.) = sakınmak, kaçınmak
145. Vulnerable to (adj.)=susceptible! OF bıktım bundan! Etkiye açık
146. Decay (v.) = çürümek
147. Insignificant (adj.) = not clear, belli belirsiz
148. Argue (v.) = iddia etmek
149. Occur (v.) = meydana gelmek, take place, happen
150. Decade (n.) 10 yıllık süreye verilen isim
151. Find out (v.) = discover, farkına varmak, keşfetmek
152. without any preparation beforehand= önceden hazırlık yapmadan
153. Monitor (v.) = observe, gözlemlemek
154. Assume (v.) = varsaymak.
155. Nervous (adj.) = endişeli
156. Expectation (n.) = beklenti, umut
157. Perception (n.) = algı
158. Anxiety (n)= endişe
159. Sophisticated (adj.) = alet edevat için karmaşık, insan için bilgili
160. Conclude (v.) sonuca varmak, bir yorum yapmak
161. …is worth changing = değiştirmeye değer
162. Inconsistencies (n.) = tutarsızlıklar
163. for the sake of …. = bir şeyin uğruna
164. Revise (v.) = gözden geçirmek
165. Express (v.) = ifade etmek
166. Comprehend (v.) = understand, grasp, kavramak, idrak etmek, anlamak
167. Comprehensible (adj.) = kavranıbl!
168. Tolerable (adj.) = tolere edilebilen, kafasına şişe fırlatılmayan (!)
169. Anticipate (v.) = expect, ummak, beklenti içinde olmak
170. Relevant (adj.) = konuyla ilgili alakalı olan
171. Wisdom (n.) = bilgelik
172. intensive exposure to …. = …ye yoğun biçimde maruz kalma
173. Extensively (adv.) = geniş çapta olacak şekilde
174. Release (v.) = serbest bırakmak, salmak, piyasaya sürmek
175. Appreciate (v.) = taktir etmek
176. Revision (n.) = revizyon…gözden geçirme

177. cut off the blood supply = kan kaynağını kesmek
178. double their size = boyutlarını iki katına çıkarmak
179. Experimental (adj.) = deneysel
180. Relate to … ()v.) = bir şeye benzemek, ilgisi olmak
181. Reverse (v.) = tersine çevirmek
182. be linked to …. = … ile bağlantılı olmak, be associated with
183. urge people TO DO sth. = insanları bir şey yapmaya teşvik etmek, itmek
184. Promote (v.) = desteklemek
185. Drastic measures = radikal/ani alınan önlemler
186. hereditary connection = kalıtımsal bir bağlantı
187. life-threatening tumours = hayatı tehdit eden tümörler
188. cancerous tissue = kanserli doku
189. appetite-suppressing pills = iştah bastırıcı haplar
190. decline (v.) (n.) = düşüş göstermek, düşüş
191. steady supply of oxygen = sabit/ kesintisiz oksijen kaynağı
192. identify (v.) = tanımlamak
193. side effect = yan etki
194. fat accumulation = yağ birikmesi
195. opposition (n.)= muhalefet
196. Proposal (n.) = teklif
197. Indicate (v.) = göstermek, işaret etmek, ifade etmek
198. abnormally greedy = anormal derecede açgözlü
199. Regulate (v.) = düzenlemek
200. Differ from/than sth. (v.) = …den farkı olmak
201. Enable sbd. TO DO sth. = birinin bir şey yapmasını sağlamak
202. Costly (adj.) = expensive, pahalı, maliyeti yüksek
203. Raise (v.) = increase, arttırmak
204. Raise = collect, toplamak
205. Raise = bring up = kavun karpuz çocuk falan yetiştirmek
206. Raise a subject, issue = bi konuyu gündeme getirmek
207. raise concerns = kaygı uyandırmak
208. Enthusiast (n.) = hayran, bir fikrin taraftarı
209. assume (v.) = varsaymak
210. Adapt to … (v.) = şartlara adapte olmak
211. Manipulate (v.) = manipule etmek, kendi çıkarına kontrol altına almak
212. Menace (n.)= tehdit
213. countless (adj.) = many, lots of, sayısız, bir sürü
214. Overcome (v.) = üstesinden gelmek
215. Utilize (v.) = use, kullanmak
216. primitive societies = ilkel toplumlar!
217. career prospects = kariyer şansları
218. spiraling costs = artan maliyetler
219. aim at sth. = bir şeyi hedeflemek
220. explore (v.) = keşfetmek
221. the Project got under way = projeye başlandı
222. precisely (adv.) = exactly, kesin olarak
223. detrimental to … (adj.) = harmful for…, zararlı
224. inspire (v.) = ilham vermek
225. rumors = söylenti
226. affection (n.) = şefkat
227. Pioneer (v.) = liderlik etmek, önder olmak
228. in rare instances = nadir durumlarda, nadiren
229. exaggerate (v.) = abartmak,, egzajere etmek!
230. side effect = yan etki
231. food poisoning = gıda zehirlenmesi
232. compensate (v.) = make up for, telafi etmek, tazmin etmek
233. pursue (v.) = peşinden gitmek
234. certify (v.) = approve, onaylamak
235. speculation (n.) = söylenti
236. represent (v.) = temsil etmek
237. severe injury = ciddi yaralanma
238. features = properties, özellikler
239. subject (n.) = denek
240. social pressure = toplumsal baskı
241. excellence (n.) = mükemmellik
242. accomplishment = achievement = başarı, bi işi yerine getirme
243. tense (adj.) = gergin
244. differentiate (v.) = ayırdına varmak
245. instantly (adv.) = anında
246. convert sth. into sth = bir şeyi bir şeye çevirmek
247. versatile (adj.) = çok amaçlı kullanılabilen
248. horizontal (adj.) = yatay
249. vertical (adj.) = dikey
250. determine (v.) = tespit etmek, belirlemek
251. curve (n.) = kıvrım
252. store (v.) = saklamak, ama odada falan bi eşyayı tutmak gibi!
253. work out (v.) = calculate, hesaplamak
254. apparent (adj.) = görünürde
255. species (n.) = tür
256. successfully exhibited = başarılı şekilde sergilenen
257. even by the faintest electrical currents = en hafif elektrikli akımlar tarafından bile
258. bother (v.) = rahatsız etmek
259. little is known about ….= …. hakkında çok az şey bilinmektedir
260. boom (v.) = birden artış göstermek
261. triple (v.) = 3 katına çıkmak
262. life expectancy = yaşam süresi, ömür
263. convey an idea TO sbd. = bir fikri falan birilerine aktarmak
264. on the verge of ….. = ……in eşiğinde
265. elements linked to cancer…. = kanser ile bağlantılı olan elementler
266. urbanize (v.) = kentleşmek
267. prosperity (n.) = zenginlik, refah
268. modify (v.) = değişiklik yapak, adapte etmek, modifiye etmek
269. a striking improvement = çarpıcı gelişim, gözle görülür ilerleme
270. diminishing prices = azalan fiyatlar
271. career prospects = kariyer şansları
272. literacy = cehalet
273. embarrass (v.) = utandırmak
274. controversial (adj.) = tartışmalı
275. long-standing neglect of …. = ….in uzun süreli göz ardı edilmesi
276. enlighten people about …. = insanları ….hakkında aydınlatmak
277. absence of political will = politik iradenin yokluğu
278. implement various policies = çeşitli politikalar yürütmek/ uygulamak
279. mundane news stories = sıkıcı gazete haberleri
280. seek, sought, sought = aramak, look for
281. an outstanding performance = harika, büyüleyici, olağanüstü performans
282. break into = zorla içeri girmek
283. have an access to …. = …ya erişimi olmak
284. in return for…. = …… karşılığında
285. tend to be secretive = saklama eğilimi göstermek
286. fiddle with sth. = bir şeye müdahale etmek, karıştırmak
287. financial gain = mali kazanç
288. hacking came to an abrupt halt = hacking aniden durdu
289. defeat (v) (n.) = yenmek, yenilgi
290. set out to do sth. = bir şeyi yapmak için işe koyulmak
291. relieve (v.) = rahatlamak, rahatlatmak
292. contemporary scientists= modern çağın bilim adamları
293. deduce (v.) = come to a conclusion, çıkarımda bulunmak
294. reasoning = nedenselleştirme
295. diversity (n.) = difference, farklılık
296. remains nearly the same = neredeyse aynı kalmıştır
297. radiate (v.) = yaymak, radyasyon buradan geliyor (radiation)
298. annually (adv.) = yıllık
299. deficiency (n.) = eksiklik (deficient = eksik, ..dan yoksun)
300. insincerity (n.) = samimiyetsizlik
301. hard-earned cash = zor kazanılan para
302. glamour = çekicilik, glamorous = çekici, gösterişli
303. humdrum tasks= sıkıcı işler, monotonous tasks, jobs
304. accurate (adj.) = exact, precise, kesin
305. provide benefits = yarar sağlamak
306. drought-stricken trees = kuraklığın vurduğu ağaçlar
307. trees here are deprived of water = buradaki ağaçlar sudan yoksunlar
308. send out = yaymak, emit
309. detect (v.) = tespit etmek
310. draw worrying conclusions = endişe verici çıkarımlarda bulunmak
311. perceive (v.) = algılamak
312. persist (v.) = ısrar etmek
313. reinforce (v.) = support, desteklemek
314. spontaneous (adj.) = spontane, beklenmedik/plansız meydana gelen
315. keep up = sürdürmek
316. frantic (adj.) = çılgın
317. prominent author= bilinen, tanınan yazar




.
hicbirsey2001 Tarih: 23.08.2007 15:13
VOCAB LIST SERIES (1)
‘FIRST CERTIFICATE MASTERCLASS’

UNIT 1
Accomplish (v.): achieve, başarmak, bir görevi yerine getirmek
Adjust (v.): adapt to, ayarlamak, adapte olmak
Adventurous (adj.): maceraperest, macerasever, maceracı, maceraperver
Aspect (n.): side, hayatın falan yanları darken ki yan, various aspects of life
Back down: support, desteklemek
Be accustomed to ..sth/Ving…: bi şeye/şeyi yapmaya alışık olmak
Bring about: cause, lead to, result in, neden olmak
Bring back: hatırlatmak, aklına getirmek
Bring down: iktidardan düşürmek, ama bu ünitede fiyatları düşürmek olarak geçiyor
Bring in: introduce, bi kanun, kural, düzenleme falan yürürlüğe sokmak
Bring round: ayılanı bayılanı kendine getirmek
Bring up: bi konuyu toplantı falan gibi bir yerde gündeme getirmek
Bring up: raise, çoluk çocuk yetiştirmek
Bump into: run into, meet somebody by chance, rastlaşmak
Call off: cancel, iptal etmek
Competitive (adj.): rekabetçi
Confident (adj.): kendine güvenen
Constraint (n.): restraint, pressure, kısıtlama, engel
Deal with: handle = tackle with = cope with (v.): bi problemi ele almak, başa çıkmak, ilgilenmek
Discomfort (n.): rahatsızlık
Distract (v.): dikkatini dağıtmak
Emotional(adj.): duygusal
Enormous (adj.): huge, tremendous, koccccaman
Generous (adj.) : unselfish, open-handed, cömert
Influence (v.) (n.): etkilemek, etki
Influential (adj.): etkileyici
Initial (adj.): first, primary, başlangıçtaki
Likely (adj.): probable, olası
Morals (n.) : ethics, ahlak kuralları
Opportunity (n.) = occasion, chance, şans, fırsat
Pick at: nibble, atıştırmak, yiyeceğin bi parçasını yemek
Pick on: criticize or behave unkindly, kıllık yapmak, canını sıkmak
Pick out: spot, birini zor bir anda seçebilmek, mesela kalabalıkta
Pick up: 1. hastalık kapmak 2. birini bi yerden almak 3. bakarak öğrenmek 4. yerden bir şey toplamak
Possessive(adj.): sahiplenici
Predict (v.): forecast, foretell, tahmin etmek, öngörmek
Privilege (n.): ayrıcalık
Properly (adv.): uygun şekilde, adam gibi
Put sbd. down: disappoint, hayal kırıklığına uğratmak
Put up with: stand, bear, tolerate, katlanmak
Remote (adj.): far, uzak
Reproduce (v.): üremek
Sensible(adj.): reasonable, logical, rational, wise, thoughtful, mantıklı
Sensitive(adj.): touchy, irritable, duygulu, hassas, kırılgan
Sincere(adj.): içten, kalpten, içi dışı bir, samimi, yamuk yapmayan
Split up: separate, ayrılmak, eşlerin ayrılması gibi
Spouse (n.): eş, karı koca falan
Survive (v.): hayatta kalmak
Sustain (v.): keep, maintain, hold on to, elde tutmak, devamını sağlamak
Tension (n.): gerginlik
Turn out to be: sonunda bilmemne halini almak.
Vital (adj.): important, crucial, hayati öneme sahip
Work out: calculate, hesaplamak OR solve a problem, bi sorunu çözmek

UNIT 2, COMPLUSION

Abuse (v.): use for a bad purpose, kötüye kullanmak (be abused: acımasız davranışa maruz kalmak, she has ben abused by her father since she came here.)
Abusive (adj.): vahşice acımasızca davranan
Assert (v.): emphasize, insist upon, fikrini, isteklerini falan diretmek
Assertive (adj.): dayatıcı
Be associated with sth. (adj.): birşeyle ilişkili olmak
Be fed up with sth. (adj.): ….den bıkmak usanmak
Be subjected to: …’e tabi olmak
Be suspended from: askıya alınmak, bi aktiviteden çıkartılmak
Bossy (adj.): etrafına dediğini yaptırtmaya çalışan
Cowardly (adj.): not brave, not courageous, korkak
Cut down : reduce, azaltmak
Deny (v.): inkar etmek, She still denies stealing the money!
Determination (n.): kararlılık
Determine (v.): ascertain, deyect, verify, belirlemek, tespit etmek
Determined (adj.): kararlı
Determining (adj.): belirleyici factor, etken, vb.
Discover (v.): realize, notice, find out, farkına varmak
Doubt (n.) (v.): şüphe, şüphelenmek
Enable sbd. To do sth. (v.) birinin bir şey yapmasını sağlamak
Exaggerate (v.): abartmak
Exhaust (v.): çok yormak, tüketmek (miktar için de kullanılabilir)
Exhausted (adj.): bitkin
Exhausting (adj.): yorucu
Exhaustion (n.): yorgunluk, tükenmişlik
Exhaustive (adj.): comprehensive, thorough, kapsayıcı, geniş çapta çalışma, vb
Extremely (adv.): aşırı derecede
Extroverted (adj.): dışa dönük, fırlama işte!
Gang up (v.): gruplaşmak
Gesticulate at sbd. (v.): gesture, birini işaretedip ona bakmak, mimiklerinle eleştirmek gibi
Get by: survive on sth, belli bir miktarla geçinebilmek
Give away: istemediğin eşyaları dağıtmak
Give back: geri vermek
Give in: deliver, teslim etmek
Give out: bilgiyi yaymak
Give up on: başarılı olmayacağına inandığın bir şeyden vazgeçmek
Give up: stop, vazgeçmek, bi alışkanlığı bırakmak, pes etmek
Hostile (adj.): unfriendly, adverse, antagonistic, düşmanca
Hostility (n.): düşmanlık
Impolite (adj.): kaba
Introverted (adj.): içine kapanık, utangaç
Light up: shine, parlamak
Light up: smoke, sigara yakmak
Put on: gain, bu ünitedeki anlamıyla kilo almak
Quit (v.): stop, give up, bırakmak, bazen de istifa etmek olabilir
Realize (v.): notice, farkına varmak
Refuse (v.): to say ‘no’, reject, turn down, reddetmek
Resist (v.): direnmek
Resistance (n.): direnç
Irresistible (adj.): dayanılmaz
Retain (v.): hold, keep, preserve, maintain, muhafaza etmek, saklamak
Short of sth. (adj.): if you are short of sth., you don’t have enough of it
Stubborn (adj.): inatçı
Suffer from (v.): mağdur olmak, acı çekmek
Superstition (n.): batıl inanç
Suspect (v.): şüphelenmek
Suspicion (n.): şüphe
Suspicious (adj.): şüpheci
Turn sbd. off: disgust, iğrendirmek
Utterly (adv.): thoroughly, totally, absolutely, tamamen
There’s no point doing sth. : Bi şeyi yapmanın anlamı yok ‘no point coming here!’

UNIT 3, TALENTS

Accomplish (v.): achieve, bir görevi, amacı ya da hedefi yerine getirmek
Achieve (v.): başarmak, bi görevi tamamlamak
Advance (n.): development, ilerleme
Apparently (adv.): seemingly, görünürde
Approach (n.): yaklaşım, yaklaşma
Arrogant (adj.): kibirli
Boundary (n.): border, frontier, sınır
Break down: When a machine/vehicle breaks down, it stops functioning, bozulmak
Break down: göz yaşlarına boğulmak
Break in(to): enter by force, zorla içeriye girmek
Break out of: hapisten falan kaçmak
Break out: begin suddenly, aniden ortaya çıkmak, patlak vermek
Break up: ayrılmak, split up
Break up: okulun tatile girmesi
Commit oneself to sth./doing sth. : kişinin kendini bir şeye adaması
Commitment (n.): kendini bi şeye adama
Crucial (adj.): vital, very important, çok önemli
Elusive (adj.): difficult to find, bulması, elde etmesi güç
Excel at sth. (v.): bi şeyde, bi yerde başarılı olmak
Exceptional (adj.): extraordinary, istisnai derecede, sıra dışı
Injury-free training: sakatlık çıkmayan antrenman
Instant (adj.): o anda meydana gelen
Manage to do (v.): bi işi yapmayı başarmak
Neglect (v.): ignore, göz ardı etmek
Outbreak (n.): patlak verme, ortaya çıkış (outbreak of a dangerous epidemic)
Predict (v.): forecast, foretell, tahmin etmek
Prodigy (n.): a person with great natural talent, doğuştan yetenekli
Recover (v.): iyileşmek
Recovery (n.): iyileşme
Remain (v.): kalmak, durumu muhafaza etmek (She remained silent.)
Remarkable (adj.): noticeable, considerable, obvious, gözle görülür, kayda değer
Reveal (v.): disclose, show, göstermek, açığa çıkarmak
Succeed in (v.): başarmak. We finally succeeded in reaching an agreement.
Take after: resemble, fiziksel olarak birine çekmek
Take back: bi şeyi geri götürmek /// lafını geri almak
Take down: not almak
Take off: elbise çıkarmak //// uçağın havalanması
Take over: bi şeyin kontrolünü ele geçirmek
Take to: sevmeye başlamak
Take up: bi hobiye başlamak

UNIT 4, APPEARANCES

Adapt (v.): adapte olmak
Adopt (v.): evlat edinmek /// bi kanun falan uyarlamak
Be obliged to do sth. : mecbur olmak
Compulsory (adj.): obligatory, mandatory, mecburi, SS faktörüyle
Conflict (n.): anlaşmazlık, fikirsel çatışma
Consent (n.): permission, approval, agreement, onay, izin
Consume (v.): tüketmek
Consumer (n.): tüketici
Consumption (n.): tüketim
Distinguished (adj.): a distinguished person is very successful in his career.
Enthusiast (n.): hayran, bi konunun hayranı gibi
Hardly (adv.): barely, neredeyse hiç (I can hardly understand the Japanese teacher)
Imitate (v.): copy, resemble, taklit etmek
Judge (v.): yargılamak
Keen on sth./doing sth. (adj.): eager, enthusiastic, bir şey için can atan, hevesli
Mandatory (adj.): yukarıda dediğimin aynısı
Object to (v.): karşı çıkmak
Objection (n.): itiraz
Objective (adj.): aim, goal, hedef, amaç
Obligation (n.): mecburiyet
Obligatory (adj.): yukarıııııı
Prejudgment (n.): önyargı
Put across: fikrini açıklamak
Put forward: submit, bi teklif öne sürmek
Put on: elbise giymek // kilo almak
Put sbd. off: postpone, geciktirmek
Put sbd. out: bi haberi yaymak // ateş söndürmek //
Put up with: stand, katlanmak
Put up: accommodate, kalacak yer vermek birine
Put up: build, inşa etmek
Put up: increase, arttırmak
Relief (n.): rahatlama
Take legal action: yasal önlem almak, harekete geçmek
Take measures / precautions / steps: önlem almak
Time-consuming (adj.): zaman alıcı (aktivite falan)
Well-renowned (adj.): popular, popüler

UNIT 5, FOREIGN PARTS

Accidental (adj.): unintentional, kazara, istemeden
Check in: otele giriş yapmak /// yolculuk öncesinde işlemlerini yaptırmak
Confess (v.): itiraf etmek
Considerate (adj.): anlayışlı
Decent (adj.): proper, adam gibi ‘a decent meal in stead of junk food’
Decline (v.): reject, turn down, reddetmek, geri çevirmek
Drop sbd. off: birini bir yere bırakmak
Expect (v.): hope, anticipate, ummak, beklemek
Expectation (n.): beklenti ‘Great Expectations by Charles DICKENS’
Expected (adj.): beklenen
Filthy (adj.): dirty, kirli, pasaklı
Furious (adj.): veeeeeeeeerrry angry, öfkeli
Hilarious (adj.): extremely funny, çok taş…!
Immature (adj.): olgun olmayan
Incident (n.): something that happens, often unpleasant, genelde istenmeyen olay, durum
Inevitable (adj.): kaçınılmaz
Irrational (adj.): mantıksız, irrasyonel
Look after: take care of sth/sbd, göz kulak olmak
Look back on: eskiyi hatırlamak
Look forward to sth.: dört gözle beklemek
Look onto: manzara olarak bi yere bakmak
Look over: examine sth. quickly, bi göz atmak
Look round: etrafına bakınmak
Look sth. up: sözlükte falan bi kelime aramak
Look up to sbd.: admire, birine hayranlık beslemek
Monitor (v.): observe, gözlemlemek
Moral (adj.): ahlaklı
Neglect (v.): fail to pay attention, overlook, ihmal etmek, göz ardı etmek
Obedient (adj.): itaatkar
Onlookers (n.): bir olayı seyreden kişiler
Pick up: birinibi yerden almak
Pick up: gözlemleyerek öğrenmek, bi şeyler kapmak
Pick up: hastalık kapmak
Pick up: yerden bi şey almak, toplamak
Remind sbd. of sth. (v.): birine bir şeyi hatırlatmak
See sbd. off: birini yolcu etmek
Set off : yola çıkmak
Snooze (v.): uyuklamak
Spare (adj.): yedek
Stop over: uğramak
Take off: üstünü çıkarmak //// uçağın havalanması
Unexpected (adj.): beklenmeyen
Wise (adj.): akıllı, bilge, akıllıca

UNIT 6, The MIND
Accompany (v.): eşlik etmek
Achieve (v.): accomplish, bi işi yerine getirmek, tamamlamak, hedefe ulaşmak
Afford to do (v.): mali gücünün yetmesi
Annoy (v.): kızdırmak
Apologize for (v.): özür dilemek
Articulate (adj.): fikirlerini net biçimde aktaran
Assume (v.): var saymak
Assumption (n.): varsayım
Boldly (adv.): bravely, cesurca
Capable of …doing sth… (adj.):….i yapabilme kabiliyetinin olması
Clumsily (adv.): awkwardly, sakarca
Confident (adj.): kendine güvenen
Conflict (n.): disagreement, çatışma, ayrılık, anlaşmazlık
Consume (v.): tüketmek
Consumer (n.): tüketici
Consumption (n.): tüketim
Cope with (v.): deal with, tackle with, handle, bi problemle mücadele etmek
Dash (v.): aceleylen (!) bi yere gitmek
Deceive (.): aldatmak, kandırmak
Deception (n.): hile
Deliberate (adj.): intentional, kasıtlı
Dependable (adj.): reliable, güvenilir
Disorder (n.): düzensizlik
Embarrassing (adj.): utanç verici
Excessive (adj.): aşırı (miktar falan)
Goal (n.): aim, objective, amaç, hedef
Imitate (v.): taklit etmek
Indecisive (adj.): kararsız
Insist on (v.): ısrar etmek
Instinctive (adj.): iç güdüsel
Intelligence (n.): zeka, istihbarat
Intend (v.): niyet etmek
Lengthy (adj.): uzun
Lose one’s temper: kendini kaybetmek, sonunda kafa da atılabilir
Nocturnal (adj.): geceye ait
Pessimistic (adj.): kötümser
Predict (v.): tahmin etmek
Prediction (n.): tahmin
Pretend (v.): …mış gibi yapmak ‘She pretends to pay attention, but in fact she doesn’t’
Reluctantly (adv.): unwillingly, gönülsüzce
Remain (v.): kalmak, durumunu muhafaza etmek, yukarıda örnek vardı!
Self-reliant (adj.): kendine güvenen
Severe (adj.): harsh, şiddetli
Soundly (adv.): completely, tamamen // soundly based on sth. = reasonably based on
Straightforward (adj.): dobra
Succeed in (v.): bi şeyde başarılı olmak
Take …sth… into account: bir şeyi hesaba katmak
Tend to do sth. (v.): bir şeyi yapma eğiliminde olmak
There is no one in sight: Görünürde kimse yok.
Unpredictable (adj.): beklenmedik
Upbringing (n.): the way you are brought up, yetiştiriliş tarzı
Upsetting (adj.): sinirlendirici
Wealth (n.): refah

UNIT 7, FREE TIME


Be worth Doing sth. : bi şey yapmaya değer
Come across: encounter, şansa karşılaşmak
Come along: çağırmak
Come apart: ayrılmak
Come forward: fikrini beyan etmek
Come round: evin euğramak
Come up against: tatsız bir durumla karşı karşıya kalmak
Come up with: bir fikirle ortaya çıkmak
Come up: gündeme gelmek
Common sense: sağ duyu
Consequence (n.): result, outcome, sonuç
Conserve (v.): preserve, protect, korumak
Convert …sth… into …sth…: bi şeyi bi şeye çevirmek ‘convert dollars into YTL’
Cut down (v.): decrease, reduce, bi şeyin miktarını azaltmak
Dedicate …sth…. to …sth… (v.): kendini bi şeye adamak
Delightful (adj.): zevkli
Devote ….sth… to …sth… (v.): kendini bir şeye adamak, vermek
Enchanting (adj.): büyüleyici
Equip (v.): donatmak, ‘equip the planes with small base-stations to allow in-flight calling’
Extend (v.): uzamak, uzatmak
Extension (n.): uzatma, uzatım
Extensive (adj.): geniş çapta
Extent (n.): belli bir nokta ‘I agree with you to an extent’
Handle (v.): bi konuyu or problemi ele almak
Hesitate (v.): tereddüt etmek
Nationally recognized: milletçe tanınan, ulusça kabul edilmiş
Outcome= consequence= result (n.): sonuç yani!
Preserve (v.): üsteki gibi işte!
Punctual (adj.): dakik
Put …sbd…. up (phrasal): birine kalacak yer vermek
Rear (v.): bring up, yetiştirmek
Remark (v.) (n.): laf söylemek, laf
Reside (v.): live, ikamet etmek
Residence (n.): ikamet edilen yer, eviniz yani
Resident (n.): sakin, bi yerde oturan yaşayan kişi
Residential (adj.): ikamete müsait ‘residential area’
Run out (v.) tükenmek
Run out of (v.): exhaust, use up, tüketmek
Spacious (adj.): geniş
Surplus (n.): aşırı miktar, yeterin üzerinde olan
Tranquility (n.): sakinlik, dinginlik

UNIT 8 MEDIA

Afford (v.): mali gücünün yetmesi
Assault (n.): attack, saldırı
Assert (v.): diretmek
Assertive (adj.): diretici
Battle of will: irade savaşı, çekişmesi
Benefit (v.) (n.): çıkar fayda, yararlanmak
Break-in (n.): zorla içeri girme
Crime rate: suç oranı
Convert sth. (in)to sth: bir şeyi bir şeye çevirmek, dönüştürmek
Dominate (v.): have control over sth./sbd., baskın olmak
Dramatically (adv.): considerably, remarkably, noticeably, gözle görülür biçimde
Go after: peşinden gitmek
Go along with: accept an dobey a rule, itaat etmek
Go by: pass, ‘time goes by’
Go on: continue, devam etmek yazmama gerek yok!
Go through: bi süreçten geçmek, tecrübe geçirmek
Go up: increase, artmak, yükselmek
Have access to …sth…: bir şeye erişebilmek
Homicide (n.): cinayet
Innocent (adj.): masum
Irritate (v.): rahatsız etmek
Irritated (adj.): rahatsız olmuş
Irritating (adj.): rahatsız edici
Manipulate (v.): control altında tutmak
Manipulative (adj.): control edilıbıl
Non-verbal communication : sözsüz iletişim
Provide (v.): tedarik etmek
Publicity (n.): tanınma, kamuoyu ilgisi
Regard ….sth/sbd…. as …sth/sbd….: birini bir şey olarak görmek, ele almak
Subtle (adj.): not easily noticed, kolayca görülmeyen
Tussle (n.): çekişme

UNIT 9 AROUND US
…to an extent: belli bir noktaya kadar
Account (n.): bi konu hakkındaki özet bilgi
Adequately (adv.): sufficiently, yeteri kadar
Advance (n.): development, gelişim
Approximately (adv.): nearly, yaklaşık olarak
Arise from (v.) stem from, result from, bir şeyden kaynaklanmak
Behavior patterns: davranış şekilleri
Beneath (prep.): under, altında
Consistent (adj.): istikrarlı
Contribute to (v.): katkıda bulunmak
Conventional (adj.) klasik
Deforestation (n.): ormanların yok olması
Detect (v.): pinpoint, tespit etmek
Disastrous (adj.): catastrophic, felaket gibi
Distinct (adj.): farklı, göze çarpan
Emerge (v.): appear, ortaya çıkmak
emission (n.): emisyon, yayım
Emit (v.): gaz vs. yaymak
Eruption (n.): volkanik patlama
Evacuate (v.): felaket anında bir yerdeki insanları tahliye etmek
Evaluate (v.) assess, değerlendirmek
Exceed (v.): aşmak, miktar, hız, vb.
Fluctuate (v.): değişiklik göstermek, dalagalanmak (piyasalar falan)
Hazard (n.): danger, tehlike ‘hazard zone: tehlike bölgesi’
Inexplicable (adj.): açıklanamaz
Inhabitant (n.): bir yerde outran kişi, oranın sakini, Nizam amca falan işte!
Intense (adj.): yoğun
Lead to (v.): üsttekinin aynısı
Misfortune (n.): talihsizlik
Monitor (v.): observe, gözlemlemek
Neighboring (adj.): yanında bulunan
Occur (v.): take place, happen, meydana gelmek
Perceive (v.): algılamak
Permanently (adv.): daimi olarak
Persuade (v.): convince, ikna etmek
Phenomenon (n.): fenomen, açıklanması güç olay
Propose (v.): teklif etmek
Reliable means of forecasting earthquakes: güvenilir deprem tahmin etme metotları
Reluctant (adj.): isteksiz
Remain (v.): durumu muhafaza etmek
Result from (v.) stem from, arise from, kaynaklanmak
Result in (v.): cause, lead to, bring about, neden olmak, yol açmak
Ruin (v.): yıkmak, harabe haline getirmek
Severe (adj.): harsh, şiddetli
Stem from (v.) dedik ya bi şeyden kaynaklanmak diye!
Stillness (n.): durgunluk
Succession of droughts: ard arda gelen kıtlık anları
Summit (n.): peak, zirve
Willing (adj.): eager, istekli
Witness to sth. (v.): bi şeye şahit olmak
Sayfa 119’daki kısa okuma parçası çok önemli!


UNIT 10, INNOVATION

Absorbing (adj.): dikkati hapseden, çok etkileyici
Afford to do (v.): mali gücünün yetmesi ‘I cannot afford to buy a laptop these days’
As to (prep.): about, hakkında ‘reports as to the effects of the epidemic’
Astounding (adj.): amazing, astonishing, hayret verici
Beneficial (adj.): yararlı
Carry away: lose control, kendini kaybetmek
Carry back: alıp maziye götürmek
Carry on: keep doing sth. , devam etmek
Carry out: conduct, implement, bir plan, program, araştırma falan yürütmek
Carry through: zorluklara rağmen bir şeyi yapmak, tamamlamak
Collide (v.): çarpışmak
Collision (n.): çarpışma
Commercially (adv.): ticari olarak
Consume (v.): tüketmek
Consumption (n.): tüketim
Congregate (v.): toplanmak
Cruelty (n.): zulüm
Dramatic (adj.): remarkable, noticeable, substantial, kaydadeğer, gözle görülür
Drastic (adj.): radical, kararlı, radikal, etkili ‘drastic measures’
Drawback (n.): disadvantage, dezavantaj
Eventually (adv.): finally, nihayetinde
Humble (adj.): ordinary, sıradan
Impact (n.): effect, etki ‘deep impact’
Incidentally (adv.): by the way, bu arada…
Inevitable (adj.): kaçınılmaz
Influence (v.): etkilemek
Influential (adj.): etkileyici, nüfuz sahibi, nüfus diil!
Instant (adj.): immediate, instantenous, anlık, o anda meydana gelen
Landmine (n.): kara mayını
Overlook (v.): bi evin or ofisin manzara görmesi ‘an office overlooking Taxim Square’
Overlook = ignore (v.) göz ardı etmek
Rate (v.): derecelendirmek
Recreation (n.): dinlenme
Remove (v.): bir şeyi bi şeyin içinden çıkarmak, bu ünitede ‘ortadan kaldırmak’anlamında
Survey (n.): araştırma, anket
Unfairly (adv.): adaletsizce
Wipe out (v.): eradicate, destroy, yok etmek, kökünü kazımak

UNIT 11, COMMUNICATION

Account for (v.): bir durumu açıklamak, workbook, page 66
A wide range of expressions: çeşitli ifadeler
Artificially (adv.): yapay olarak
Conceive (v.): hayal etmek, inanmak ‘cannot conceive of that amount of money!’
Contempt (adj.): saygısızlık ‘have no contempt for such politicans’
Convince (v.): persuade, ikna etmek
Derive from (v.): …dan türetmek
Disclose (v.): açığa çıkarmak
Display (v.): göstermek
Distinguish sth/sbd. from sth/sbd (v.)
Efficient (adj.): verimli
Establish (v.): kurmak (şirket, dernek falan)
Facial muscles: yüz kasları
Indicate (v.): göstermek
Interpret (v.): yorumlamak
National publicity (n.): ulusal kamuoyu
Perceive (v.): algılamak
Point out (v.): işaret etmek
Provide (v.): tedarik etmek
Recognize (v.): tanımak
Reserved (adj.): shy, coy, modest, utangaç
Reveal (v.): açığa çıkarmak
Ruthless (adj.): cruel, pitiless, merciless, relentless, acımasız, katı, sert, kalpsiz
Simultaneous (adj.): aynı anda
Stick at: bi işe göreve devam etmek
Stick by: birine destek vermeye devam etmek
Stick out: göze çarpmak /// çıkıntı yapmak
Stick to: dediğine sadık kalmak, birinin yanında olmak
Stick together: birlikte olmak, yanında durmak, destek vermek
Stick up for: defend, stand up for sbd., birine destek vermek
Survey (n.): araştırma
Track (v.): iz
Unconscious (adj.): bilinci yerinde olmayan, bir şeyin farkında olmayan
Unique (adj.): tek, eşsiz
Vanish (v.) = disappear (v.): ortadan kaybolmak

UNIT 12, SOCIETY

Attempt to do (v.): bi şey yapmaya teşebbüs etmek
Constantly (adv.): sürekli şekilde, sabit bir şekilde
Get away with: yaptığın kötü bir şey yanına kalıp senin de ortadan kaybolman
Get away: escape, kaçmak
Get by: survive, elinde olanla geçinmek
Get down: make sbd. unhappy, moralini bozmak
Get on/along with sbd.: biriyle geçinmek
Get on: başarılı olmak, işinde planına programına düzenli devam edebilmek
Get out: dışarı çıkmak
Get over: üstesinden gelmek
Hostage (n.): rehine
Incriminating (adj.): suçlayan, bu ünitede yapılanları ortaya çıkaran
Inspire (v.): ilham vermek
Juvenile (n.): çocuk
Life imprisonment (n.): ömür boyu hapis
Make sbd. redundant = give sbd. the sack = to fire sbd.: işten çıkarmak
Offence (n.): saldırı, aşağılama
Raise (v.): para toplamak, genelde hayır amaçlı
Raise = bring up (v.): büyütmek (çoluk çocuk)
Recall (v.): hatırlamak
Release (v.): serbet bırakmak // piyasaya sürmek // duman, gaz vb. yaymak
Trivial (adj.): unimportant, tırıvırı, önemsiz
Vandalize (v.): servet düşmanlığı yapmak
Vividly (adv.): canlı bir biçimde
hicbirsey2001 Tarih: 23.08.2007 15:13
SECTION I. USE of ENGLISH / Questions 1-35 (35 x 1 = 35 points)
Choose the alternative that best fits in each blank to make the texts meaningful..

Text 1.
Why Are Children Curious?

Young children are always curious and attempting to discover and learn. They are curious 1_____ around them. Any child between the ages of four months and four years is said to be more curious than an adult scientist. Adults sometimes 2_____ a child’s curiosity as a lack of ability to concentrate. The truth is that children begin to learn at birth, and 3_____ they begin school at the age of five or six, they have already absorbed an amazing 4_____ of information. This is perhaps more than 5_____ in the rest of their lives. The role of adults in the learning process of children should not be underestimated. Adults should appreciate a child’s curiosity 6_____ them to learn. Only then can they contribute to the knowledge children absorb.

1. a) about everything b) in everything c) for nothing d) on anything

2. a) regard b) remark c) associate d) approve

3. a) as soon as b) by the time c) then d) soon

4. a) capacity b) total c) amount d) number

5. a) learning c) they will learn
b) they learned d) having learned

6. a) to encourage simultaneously c) during simultaneous encouragement
b) for encouraging simultaneously d) while simultaneously encouraging

Text 2.

The Magic of Trees

In today’s modern computerized world, we humans have such a fast moving and short-lived life 7_____ the life of trees seems too long for 8_____. We may be excited about the prospect of a new millenium but there are trees still 9_____ firmly, which have seen millenia come and go. 3000 years is nothing to a yew. The world’s oldest tree, known as Eternal God, is a 12,000 year-old redwood that lives in the Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park in California. There is a magic in trees that touches us all. The death of a tree inspires a strange empathy and may even make some people 10_____ at its loss.

7. a) than b) that c) where d) which

8. a) to imagine b) our imagining c) us to imagine d) us imagining

9. a) and stand b) having stood c) to be standing d) standing

10. a) crying b) to cry c) cried d) cry



Text 3
A Huge Treat for Cinema Audiences

Cinema audiences in every country enjoy eating popcorn during a film. Soon they will be enjoying a fatter and fluffier kind of popcorn thanks to a group of physicists in Pennsylvania. The mathematical recipe they have cooked up for the new giant popcorn could also save manufacturers and 11_____ money. D. Hong at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, devised the recipe after 12_____ a speech by Young Hwa Kim, head of a company that 13_____ physics to industrial problems. Kim, in his speech, mentioned one challenge raised by a food company: how can the size of popcorn be increased?
To find out the answer to this question, Hong and his graduate student Joseph Both adapted some standard equations of thermodynamics to 14_____ how popcorn pops. When corn is heated in a pan or cooker, water inside the corn’s hard shell 15_____ steam. Eventually the steam pressure becomes high enough to break the shell open. The soft, fluffy inside then bursts out to equalize the pressure.
Hong’s mathematics showed that there is a simple way to make a bigger snack. “To give popcorn a bigger volume, simply lower the pressure in the cooker,” said Hong. “For example, if you want to make it 10 times larger, you need to 16_____ the pressure about 20 times,” he says.
Such pressure drops would be easy for industry to 17_____. Hong has submitted his work to the journal Physical Review E. and plans to experiment within a vacuum chamber 18_____ he can see how big he can make corn in practice.
“If industry is interested, I’d be willing to work with them,” he says. “Big popcorn would be fluffier and easier 19_____,” he speculates, adding that it would bring more profit to any company that would be interested. “If the popcorn were 10 times larger, they 20_____ far less corn, just a tenth of the amount they do now, for the same price.”

11. a) competitors b) consumers c) survivors d) advisors

12. a) hearing b) when he heard c) to hear d) that he heard

13. a) applies b) conveys c) converts d) refers

14. a) justify b) prescribe c) describe d) unify

15. a) brings up b) brings in c) turns on d) turns into

16. a) expand b) increase c) decline d) reduce

17. a) achieve b) install c) succeed d) conclude

18. a) in case b) so that c) provided that d) unless

19. a) for eating c) ate
b) eaten d) to eat

20. a) should have been using c) would be using
b) could have used d) would have used

Text 4
Effects of Drugs on Drivers

Drugs taken for therapeutic purposes can affect a person’s driving more than alcohol. Ian Hindmarch of the University of Surrey studied the effect of the antidepressants 21 ______ since the 1950s. In one of his experiments, he divided the volunteers into two groups and he asked 22_____ their reactions on driving simulators. They were supposed to hit the car brakes whenever a break light flashed. If the volunteers were taking antidepressants, their reaction times were twice that of drivers who 23_____ the legal limit of alcohol just before the experiment. Currently, there is a joint project on the specifications of a drug-detection 24_____ for traffic police to use at the roadside. In addition, the Association of Chief Police Officers is trying other techniques for drug 25 _____ and ways to test drivers for any impairment in their reactions.
Can’t relief of depressive symptoms improve a patient’s 26_____? In fact, little 27____ known about the effects of depression itself on driving abilities. Hindmarch is planning to do research on this issue, too.



21. a) has been widely prescribed c) widely prescribed
b) has prescribed widely d) was widely prescribed

22. a) them for testing c) to test them
b) testing for them d) them to test

23. a) used to drink b) drink c) were drinking d) had drunk

24. a) device b) machinery c) appliance d) material

25. a) recognition b) addiction c) introduction d) prediction

26. a) objectives b) performance c) production d) operations

27. a) aren’t b) isn’t c) is d) are












Text 5.
Formation of Soil

The term weathering refers to all the ways in which rock can be broken down. It 28_____ because minerals formed in a particular way (at high temperatures, in the case of igneous rocks) are often unstable when exposed to various conditions. Weathering 29_____ the interaction of the litosphere with the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. It occurs at different rates and in different ways, depending on the climatic and environmental 30_____. However, all kinds of weathering ultimately 31_____ broken minerals and rock fragments as well as other products of the decomposition of stone.
Soil is the most obvious and the most important result of the weathering 32_____ . Soil is the weathered part of the earth’s crust that is 33_____ of sustaining plant life. The character of soil depends on the nature of rock from 34_____. It also depends on the climate and on the relative ‘age’ of the soil. Immature soils are little more than broken rock fragments. Over time, immature soil develops into mature soil, resulting from decayed plant matter. Mature soil is darker, richer in microscopic life, and more supportive of plant growth 35_____ immature soil.



28. a) comes across b) takes after c) comes up d) takes place

29. a) comprises b) involves c) interferes d) contains

30. a) conditions b) coincidences c) situations d) opportunities

31. a) manufacture b) produce c) maintain d) persist

32. a) principals b) process c) procedure d) criteria

33. a) responsible b) composed c) capable d) accused

34. a) that it forms c) which it is formed
b) it forms d) that it is formed

35 a) such as b) like c) than d) of













SECTION II. READING COMPREHENSION / Questions 36-65 (30 x 1.5 = 45 points)
Text 1. Read the text and choose the alternative that best answers each question.


Books as Therapeutic Tools



Studies on the psychological state of children whose parents are divorced have shown that books can serve as therapeutic tools – or at least as effective additions to professional therapy – helping children cope with their parents’ divorce. According to educator-counsellor Joanne Bernstein, stories that confront problems with sincerity, honesty and credibility may provide insights, prompt self-examination, and lead to positive changes in attitude and behaviour. One way stories establish this is through identification. Reading about the grief and anxiety of others, she explains, can arouse sudden awareness as “problems that had not been consciously or completely recognized are allowed to surface. Introduced to characters who share their difficulties, children may no longer feel alienated and thus develop a sense of belonging. They feel freer to discuss and resolve their own problems.”
Stories and books lacking credibility, which do not sound real due to their supernatural characters and fantasy worlds, do not produce such therapeutic results, however. They may, on the contrary, lead these children to live in an imaginary world where they will try to seek shelter and security, hiding away from their problems. On reading these stories and books, children will have even more problems confronting the ‘real’ world and be not just disillusioned but also more distressed.



36. The word ‘prompt’ in line 5 is closest in meaning to _______.
a) stop b) cancel c) encourage d) discourage

37. The word ‘alienated’ in line 9 is closest in meaning to ______.
a) protected c) accepted
b) excluded d) connected

38. ‘They’ in line 12 refers to _____.
a) Stories lacking credibility c) Supernatural characters
b) Therapeutic results d) Fantasy worlds

39. Which of the following is not discussed in the article?
a) Children who read books and stories may examine and judge their own behaviour.
b) Books can help children solve their problems by causing them to examine themselves.
c) It is difficult for children to improve their relationships with their divorced parents.
d) Children may be influenced by books or stories which have fantasy characters.

40. J. Bernstein believes that stories can help children find themselves if they _____.
a) are written by psychologists or therapists
b) allow the characters to have shelter and freedom
c) deal with life’s problems frankly and honestly
d) arouse sudden problems in the lives of children





41. From the text, we can understand that children of divorced parents need to ______.
a) leave home and live independently
b) recognize their problems
c) stop discussing their problems
d) stop seeing their parents

42. Which of the following is not a reason why books and stories can act as effective
therapeutic means?
a) They lead children to complete freedom and independence.
b) They can help bring children’s problems to the surface.
c) They lead the way to the resolution of problems.
d) They help children cope with their grief and problems.

43. When children read about the problems and sadness of others in books, they start to
_____.
a) discuss their problems with them
b) withdraw themselves from real life
c) start reading fantasy books
d) identify themselves with these characters

44. Which of the following does the article mainly discuss?
a) Books can teach therapists how to better cope with children.
b) Divorced parents should buy more books for their children.
c) Children can learn to accept the realities of life through reading.
d) Children should learn to create their own fantasies.























Text 2. Read the text and choose the alternative that best answers each question.


Driven to Distraction


The E.U.’s tough new rules on recycling could mean a rocky road ahead for Europe’s carmakers.
If it hadn’t been for Henry Ford’s drive to create a mass market for cars, America wouldn’t have a middle class today. Undoubtedly, the car was the most important engine of economic growth in the 20th century. However, Ford’s American Dream is fast becoming Europe’s environmental nightmare because cars that are cast aside as useless cannot be disposed of entirely and thus contaminate the environment. Unfortunately, redundant cars do not simply vanish.
While a car’s metal components, which account for about 75% of its weight, can be reused, the remainder – a mix of plastic, rubber, fluids and paint that often contains toxic substances like mercury, cadmium and lead – is shredded into “fluff” and buried under garbage dumps. The environmental group Friends of the Earth says that this “fluff” accounts for around a tenth of the hazardous waste in Europe. And with 9 million cars discarded every year, the amount of uncontaminated land left is decreasing fast. According to environmentalists, although carmakers now have a variety of new, more easily recyclable materials to choose from, the pressures to work quickly and keep costs low often exceed their ecological concerns. What is needed is some incentive to motivate car designers to think about the environmental aspect of their work.
Recently, the European Parliament provided just such an incentive when it approved a directive that transfers responsibility for the environmental effect of a vehicle over its entire life cycle – from design to disposal – directly onto the manufacturers’ shoulders. Some requirements, such as a ban on the use of toxic heavy metals, and officially required recycling rates of 80% and 85% for cars that will go on the market after 2006 and 2015, are far reaching but feasible because with some effort, new cars can be adapted to the new regulations. But the new law will also apply retroactively and force carmakers to pay the full price for the disposal of every auto they ever produced. “The prospect of recycling cars that weren’t built to be recycled is unbearable from a financial point of view,” says Camille Blum, secretary-general of the Association of European Car Manufacturers (ACEA). ACEA believes that the new measures announced by the European parliament will cost around $23 billion, based on a recycling cost of around $155 a car and an estimated 150 million cars on the EU’s roads.


45. The word ‘discarded’ in line 13 is closest in meaning to _____.
a) thrown away c) got through
b) used up d) got away with

46. The word ‘their’ in line 16 refers to _____.
a) recyclable materials c) pressures
b) environmentalists d) carmakers


47. The word ‘incentive’ in line 17 is closest in meaning to _____.
a) response c) encouragement
b) conflict d) exposure




48. The word ‘feasible’ in line 24 is closest in meaning to _____.
a) unbelievable c) available
b) improbable d) possible

49. The word ‘retroactively’ in line 25 is closest in meaning to _____.
a) currently b) presently c) previously d) recently
50. The word ‘measures’ in line 29 is closest in meaning to _____.
a) dimensions b) degrees c) concerns d) regulations

51. The article points out that ______.
a) carmakers in Europe have always taken care to use only recyclable materials
b) 75 % of a car’s weight turns into “fluff” when it is disposed of
c) 25 % of a car’s weight consists of materials that cannot be recycled
d) most European carmakers already have the incentive to consider ecology

52. Which of the following statements is not correct according to the article?
a) Toxic waste from disposed cars is a cause of land pollution in Europe.
b) The car industry helped in the development of the middle class in America.
c) Ecological concerns will increase car manufacturing costs.
d) European carmakers have been held responsible for the disposal of cars.

53. Which is correct according to the text?
a) Carmakers will only be partly responsible for the recycling and disposal of cars.
b) The recycling of new cars will present more difficulties for car makers in the future.
c) ACEA says that recycling about 150 million European cars will cost over $20 billion.
d) Car manufacturers were always obliged to use non-toxic materials for car parts.

54. The purpose of the article is to discuss _____.
a) why car manufacturers insist on using toxic materials for making cars
b) the different materials used in the production of car components
c) the new regulations brought to car manufacturing for the sake of ecology
d) how the car industry helped economic growth in America and Europe















Text 3. Read the text and choose the alternative that best answers each question.


Catching Colds



One of the critical factors that play a part in susceptibility to colds is age according to a study done by the University of Michigan School of Public Health. The particulars revealed by the study seem to hold true for the general population. Infants are the most cold-ridden group, averaging more than six colds in their first year. Boys have more colds than girls up to age three. After the age of three, girls are more susceptible than boys, and teenage girls average three colds a year as opposed to boys’ two.
The general incidence of colds continues to decline into maturity. Elderly people who are in good health have as few as one or two colds annually. One exception is found among people in their twenties, especially women, who show a rise in cold infections due to the fact that people in this age group are most likely to have young children. Adults who delay having children until their thirties and forties experience the same sudden increase in cold infections.
The study also found that economics plays an important role. As income increases, the frequency at which colds are reported in a family decreases. Families with the lowest incomes suffer about a third more colds than families with the highest incomes. Lower income generally forces people to live in more crowded residences than those typically occupied by wealthier people, and crowding increases the opportunities for the cold virus to travel from person to person. Low income may also adversely influence diet. The degree to which poor nutrition affects susceptibility to colds is not yet clearly established, but an inadequate diet accounts for lowering resistance in general.



55. The word ‘particulars’ in line 2 is closest in meaning to ________.
a) variables c) contradictions
b) specific details d) conflicts

56. The word ‘susceptible’ in line 5 is closest in meaning to ________.
a) resistant to c) likely to recover from
b) likely to be affected by d) well protected against

57. The word ‘those’ in line 15 refers to ________.
a) forces b) incomes c) people d) houses

58. The word ‘adversely’ in line 17 is has a similar meaning to ________.
a) admirably c) unexpectedly
b) adequately d) unfavourably

59. Which of the following groups of people is most likely to catch colds according to the text?
a) teenage boys c) elderly women
b) one year old boys d) 2 year old girls




60. It is inferred in the text that _________.
a) children can infect their parents with colds
b) men catch colds more frequently than women
c) people in cold climates have a high number of colds annually
d) 30-40 year old adults show a high frequency of colds

61. Which of the following is true according to the article?
a) According to the study, generally, the older the people are, the fewer colds they have.
b) The study has determined the role of nutrition in resistance to colds.
c) The study did not involve people of higher incomes who were well off.
d) No connection has yet been found between housing conditions and colds.

62. The main purpose of the article is to ________.
a) discuss the frequency rate of colds in different age groups
b) discuss the different factors affecting cold frequency
c) show the relationship between resistance to colds and people’s income
d) show that the incidence of colds decreases with age































Text 4.
Gapped Text (Questions 63- 65)

Three sentences have been deleted from the text below. Choose the alternative (A -D)
that would best fit in each box (63 –65) and mark the answer on the answer sheet. There is one extra sentence which you do not need.

Story Telling

“Once upon a time, in a certain land, in a certain village, not near, not far, ... there lived a peasant.” This is the way storytellers began many of their tales. Long before stories were written down, they were passed on through the generations by storytellers, people who used the gift of words to transport an audience out of this world and into another inhabited by kings and princesses, heroes and monsters, witches and wizards.
Today, both the tales and the skills of the old storytellers are being revived by a new generation of performers in many parts of the world. 63__________ Beginning in clubs and bars and village halls, these tellers of tales have planted the seeds of interest which have grown into at least 70 storytelling festivals that are staged annually in dozens of languages.
During last month’s literature festival at Hay-on-Wye in Wales, for example, several British storytellers used their talents to amuse and entertain. 64__________ Such tales may seem anachronistic in this visual age ruled by the cinema, television and computers. But Daniel Morden, a young Welsh storyteller, thinks the enjoyment of listening to stories is the chance to make up our own images. “Every member of an audience makes subtly different pictures in their head, based on their own experience, fears, preoccupations and obsessions,” he says. “So everyone hears a subtly different story.”
Traditions of storytelling are still strong in many parts of the world today. 65_________ Ben Haggarty, one of Britain’s leading storytellers, believes that Europe lost many of its stories after World War I, for instance, since people didn’t feel like telling stories afterward. And once the stories disappear, they’re gone.
As a contribution to the revival of stories, in many countries formal courses are offered to teach would-be storytellers how to peel back the layers and get to the heart of a story. In Germany, for example, the European Fairy Tale Society runs training courses for students to learn how language works, how to present a story, and how to use gestures and adjust the voice.

A. Enthusiasts from the U.S. and Canada to Australia and New Zealand are now demonstrating that the stories that we all carry in our heads as part of our common heritage are ready to be retold.

B. The difficulty for storytellers today is that in the telling and retelling, the origins of the stories have become obscured by changes made over the years.

C. However, political conflicts, industrialization and urbanization are the biggest enemies of oral narrative.

D. The range of stories told on one day - from a Romanian folk tale about a prince fleeing death to a late night collection of adult tales about water nymphs and a prince searching for a wife - showed how varied the content can be.



SECTION III. WRITING ( 20 points)

Write an essay of 250 – 300 words on ONE of the topics given below. Your essay must have an introduction / a clear thesis statement (with controlling idea/s), at least 2 body paragraphs with relevant supporting ideas and a conclusion. Your ideas should be organized properly.

1. Why do most young people in Turkey live with their parents until they get married? Discuss.

2. At present, the number of women in business life is much higher than 15-20 years ago. Discuss the factors that have led to the increasing number of women in business life.

3. Discuss the effects of low income on a person’s life.

4. How does losing one’s job affect his/her life and his/her family? Discuss.





WRITE YOUR ESSAY ON THE SHEET PROVIDED.




DO NOT WRITE HERE




Essays written on the pages of this booklet will NOT be graded.