SECTION I. LISTENING/ Questions 1- 6 (6 x 1.5 = 9 pts)
Choose the most suitable alternative to complete each of the following sentences according to the text you heard.
1. The rainbow _______________.
a) appears during sunset
b) is violet on the outside and red on the inside
c) is a broken optical spectrum of light
d) is an optical and meteorological phenomenon
2. The rainbow effect can be observed when __________________.
a) the sun shines from behind the observer at a low angle or height
b) the whole sky is dark with clouds
c) waterfalls release vapor on a cloudy day
d) the observer is near a river
3. Isaac Newton showed that _______________.
a) the rainbow does not contain the color blue
b) moonbows are white
c) the rainbow actually exists in the sky
d) white light contained all the colors of the rainbow
4. A second, dimmer rainbow ________________.
a) is caused by a double reflection of the sunlight
b) is seen inside the primary bow
c) appears at an angle of 15 degrees
d) is red on the outside and violet on the inside
5. According to __________, the rainbow is a sign of God's contract with mankind.
b) The Bible
c) Greek mythology
d) American Indian mythology
6. In __________________, the rainbow was a door to stop humans from leaving the world.
a) Chinese mythology c) American mythology
b) Hindu mythology d) Indian mythology
SECTION II. USE of ENGLISH/ Questions 7- 41 (35 x 1 = 35 points)
Choose the alternative that best fits in each blank to make the text meaningful.
Scientists revealed the secret world of plants long ago. It _________7 for many years that when exposed to light under suitable conditions of temperature and moisture, the green parts of plants use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen to it. These changes are the opposite of those _________8 in respiration. The _________9 is called photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water by the chloroplasts of plant cells in the _________10 of light. Oxygen is the product of the reaction. For _________11 molecule of carbon dioxide used, one molecule of oxygen is released.
7. a) has known b) was known c) had been known d) has been known
8. a) occurred b) occur c) when occurring d) which occur
9. a) process b) progress c) advancement d) affair
10. a) presence b) presently c) presentation d) present
11. a) all b) each c) some d) none
There are many ways of communicating without using speech. People often prefer _________12 signals, signs, symbols, and gestures to communicating through speech in every known culture. The basic function of a signal is _________13 the environment in such a way that it attracts attention, as, for example, the dots and dashes of a telegraph circuit. Coded to refer to speech, its potential for communication is very great. Signs _________14 greater meaning in themselves although they are less adaptable to the codification of speech. For example, the color pattern of a barber pole conveys meaning quickly and conveniently. Symbols are more difficult to describe than either signals or signs _________15 their intricate relationship with the receiver’s cultural perceptions. In some cultures, applauding in a theatre _________16 performers with an auditory symbol of approval. Gestures such as waving and handshaking also communicate certain cultural messages.
12. a) using b) use c) having used d) to use
13. a) being affected b) affected c) to affect d) having affected
14. a) contain b) impress c) consist d) inform
15. a) despite b) because of c) though d) as well as
16. a) prevents b) permits c) provides d) protects
Which is more harmful: diet or tobacco? Diet is second only to tobacco as a leading cause of cancer and, along with alcohol, is _________17 for nearly a third of all cases of the disease in developed countries, a leading researcher said on Tuesday.
Dr Tim Key, who is _________18 research at the University of Oxford, said that scientists are still discovering how certain foods _________19 to cancer but they know that diet, alcohol and obesity play a major role. "Five percent of cancers could be _________20 if nobody was obese," he said. While tobacco is linked to about 30 percent of cancer cases, diet is involved in 25 percent and alcohol in about six percent." _________21 500 cases, we know that obesity and alcohol are important," said Key.
Obesity raises the risk of breast, womb, bowel and kidney cancer, while alcohol is known to cause cancers of the mouth, throat and liver. Its dangerous _________22 is increased when combined with smoking. _________23 both alcohol consumption and obesity rates are rising in many countries is another fact which needs to be studied.
Key said that other elements of diet linked to cancer are still unknown, but scientists are hoping that the EPIC study, which is comparing the diets of 500,000 people in 10 countries and their risk of cancer, _________24 some answers.
Early results of the study have _________25 that Norway, Sweden and Denmark have the lowest consumption of fruit and vegetables among European countries, while Italy and Spain have the highest. Eating at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day is recommended to reduce the risk of cancer.
17. a) guilty b) hazardous c) responsible d) available
18. a) carrying out b) working out c) holding up d) turning up
19. a) contribute b) donate c) expose d) commit
20. a) escaped b) diagnosed c) estimated d) avoided
21. a) Observed c) Being observed
b) Having observed d) Having been observed
22. a) assumption b) impression c) solution d) impact
23. a) When b) What c) Why d) Where
24. a) will provide c) will have provided
b) are providing d) is providing
25. a) extracted b) revealed c) emerged d) covered
We owe our ability to explore sea and ocean depths to technology. Recent technological advances in manned and unmanned undersea vehicles _________26some of the limitations of divers and diving equipment. Without a vehicle, divers often became lazy and slow and their mental concentration became limited. Because of undersea pressure which affected their speech organs, communication among divers used to be difficult or impossible, which _________27 their work. _________28, today most oceanographers make observations by means of modern instruments which are lowered into the ocean or from samples taken from the water. Direct observations of the ocean floor are made not only by divers but also by deep-diving submarines. Some of these submarines can dive to depths of more than seven miles and cruise at depths of fifteen thousand feet. Radio-equipped buoys can be operated by remote control _________29 data about water, temperature, currents and weather can be transmitted back to land-based laboratories. As can be seen, if such technical devices _________30 over the years, it would be very difficult to make observations in the depths of the oceans today.
26. a) had overcome c) overcome
b) will have overcome d) have overcome
27. a) slowed down c) can’t have slowed down
b) has slowed down d) should have slowed down
28. a) Besides b) All in all c) However d) Even though
29. a) so as to b) so that c) such a way that d) as such
30. a) haven’t been improved c) weren’t improved
b) hadn’t been improved d) aren’t improved
A conference was held in The Hague last month with the aim of reducing emissions. Ministers at the conference told the world’s press that they hadn’t succeeded _________31 an agreement on ‘greenhouse gas’ emissions, which raise the Earth’s temperature. Scientists warned that this would result in _________32 pollution than before and a greater risk of disasters across the globe. A United Nations representative said the conference had been organised to reach agreements on reducing emissions. It was a follow-up to the 1997
conference in Kyoto, Japan, when governments promised they would reduce emissions of carbon-based gases _________33 1990 levels by 2012. In Kyoto, the European Union agreed to cut emissions by 8%, Japan by 6%, and the USA by 7%. At the conference in The Hague, Britain declared that it was one of the few countries _________34 its emissions, but critics asked if this was due to government policy _________35 the decline in the coal industry. The EU _________36 the USA (the world’s biggest polluter producing 24% of the world’s emissions) that it had not met its targets. The USA firmly denied it was making excuses and said the targets were _________37 unrealistic that it was difficult to meet them.
_________38, some government ministers reluctantly admitted that they might need to cut global emissions by up to 60% in the long-term. However, many developing countries refused to sign any pollution agreements; they said it would harm their _________39 and insisted that the developed countries lead _________40 way. As a result, the developed countries should make everyone _________41 that it is important to meet the targets mentioned as soon as possible.
31. a) reaching b) to reach c) in reaching d) as to reach
32. a) much b) more c) less d) fewer
33. a) down b) beneath c) underneath d) below
34. a) reduce b) reduced c) being reduced d) reducing
35. a) and b) or c) nor d) not
36. a) reminded b) remembered c) recalled d) retained
37. a) too b) very c) so d) such
38. a) Having warned c) To be warned
b) Warning d) Having been warned
39. a) economic development c) economical development
b) developing economically d) developing economic
40. a) a b) some c) the d) O
41. a) to notice b) notice c) to be noticed d) noticed
SECTION III. READING/ Questions 42- 65 (24 x 1.5 = 36 points)
Three sentences have been deleted from the text below. Choose the alternative (A - D) that would best fit in each blank (42 –44) and mark your choice on the answer sheet. There is one extra sentence which you don’t need to use.
Desperate Afghan Women Choose Fiery Suicides
Nineteen-year-old Zahara says the day of her wedding was one of the happiest of her life. But the marriage quickly became a nightmare of quarrels and beatings. Just three months later, she lies in hospital, her pretty face and much of her body scarred by horrific burns, after she poured petrol over her head and lit a match. (42) _______
Zahara is one of many women to attempt suicide rather than be trapped in an unhappy marriage. Lying on a filthy hospital bed in the city of Herat, she clearly found it painful to speak. "My body was black from beatings," she said. "I was happy to kill myself because life was unbearable." Zahara said her husband insulted her when she said she wanted to return to her family and threatened her with a gun. (43) _______ "He thought I was joking, but I took the matches and set myself on fire," she said. Zahara is fortunate to come from a closely knit family which plans to take her to Iran for treatment soon.
In the past year, the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission has recorded at least 110 cases of self-immolation (killing oneself by burning) by women in just five parts of the country. There have been no fewer than 56 cases in Herat, a Western province ruled by a forceful Islamist accused of continuing "Taliban-like" restrictions on women.
The Rights Commission blamed Herat's high number of suicides on both domestic violence and restrictions on women's rights imposed by Governor Ismail Khan. While Khan supports female education, women's job opportunities are sharply reduced in Herat and all women are still expected to wear cover-all burqas or Iranian-style veils whenever they go out.
Marjo Stroud, of the German NGO Medica Mondiale in Herat says depression rates among women are extremely high. The main reason for this seems to be lack of hope. (44) ______ "Even if their families support them, they don't know if their job opportunities might suddenly end." Khan has, for instance, discouraged women from joining nongovernmental organizations, saying that Afghans who allowed their wives to work with foreign men could not be real men. Women have also been banned from working in tailors' shops because of "the potential for un-Islamic activity" and the only driving school for women has been shut down.
A. Eventually he said she should kill herself if she was so unhappy.
B. What is more, the drugs against depression are very rare and expensive in Afghanistan.
C. "Many young women are afraid that their dreams of getting a career will never come true," she said.
D. In post-Taliban Afghanistan, despite the new laws protecting women's rights that the Western-backed government passed in January, this remains a depressingly familiar story.
Text 2. Read the text and choose the alternative that best answers each question.
I. British men are most likely to worry about receding hairlines but are the least likely to do anything about the problem. Only Germans take the issue as seriously as their European neighbors, but they use hair-loss treatments, while Britons shave off what little they have, according to a poll published Tuesday. "There are so many myths and misconceptions about hair loss, and so, a lot of men are quite understandably suspicious of so-called miracle cures," said Dr Tim Mitchell. "But we can do a great deal more for men who are losing their hair than even a few years ago," he added in a statement. In a poll of 1,500 men in Britain, Spain, Germany, France and Italy, Britons and Germans were most likely to admit their hair loss made them feel old, less attractive and more self-doubting. Men in Spain, Germany and France dedicated more of their time and money to hair care than those in Italy or Britain. Spaniards and Germans said tackling the problem was particularly important to them and if a treatment helped, it made them feel healthier, more attractive and confident.
II. Hair loss affects about 50 percent of adult men. Male patterned hair loss (MPHL), or androgenetica alopecia, is the most common form of hair loss in men. About 6.5 million men in Britain have mild to moderate MPHL. It is inherited from one or both parents. Their hair follicles - holes in the skin from which hairs grow - are oversensitive to the effects of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a male sex hormone which is converted from testosterone. Mitchell advised men suffering from hair loss to see their doctor or pharmacist early.
45. The text mainly discusses ________.
a) how European men view hair loss
b) miracle cures for hair loss
c) how German men handle the problem of hair loss
d) how to stop hair loss
46. Which of the following is TRUE?
a) German men use less hair loss treatment than British men.
b) Italian men spend more time on hair care than Spanish men.
c) German men believe bald men look more attractive.
d) British men worry about hair loss but do little about it.
47. The word ‘misconceptions’ in paragraph I is closest in meaning to ________.
a) useless drugs c) improvements
b) wrong beliefs d) useful drugs
48. The word ‘self-doubting’ in paragraph I is closest in meaning to ________.
a) self-confident b) selfish c) insecure d) handsome
49. What does those in paragraph I refer to?
a) Spain, Germany and France c) time and money
b) men in Spain, Germany and France d) men
50. What does their in paragraph II refer to?
a) both parents c) British men
b) men with MPHL d) adult men
Text 3. Read the text and choose the alternative that best answers each question.
I. The '''Kyoto Protocol''' was discussed in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997, opened for signature on March 16, 1998, and closed on March 15, 1999. Countries which approve this protocol will reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which increase global warming. The goal is to lower overall production of six greenhouse gases. National targets range from 8% reductions for the European Union to 7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia, and permitted increases of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland.
II. The protocol operates in an interesting way. Each country has agreed to limit emissions to the levels described in the protocol, but many countries have limits that are set above their current production. These extra amounts can be purchased by other countries on the open market. So, for instance, Russia currently easily meets its targets, and can sell off its ''credits'' for millions of dollars to countries that don't yet meet their targets, Canada for instance. This rewards countries that meet their targets, and provides financial support to others to do so as soon as possible.
III. As of February 2002, the agreement had been ratified by 104 countries, representing 43.9% of emissions. Countries do not need to sign the treaty in order to ratify it; signing is a symbolic act only. A total of 19 countries had signed the protocol but not ratified it. The remaining 58 countries had neither signed nor ratified the protocol.
IV. The protocol left several issues open, to be decided later. They tried to resolve these issues at a meeting in 2000, but it wasn’t possible to reach an agreement due to clashes between the European Union on the one hand (which demanded a stricter agreement) and the United States, Canada, Japan and Australia on the other (which wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible).
V. The Kyoto Protocol limits emissions to a percentage increase or decrease from their 1990 levels. Since 1990, the economies of most countries in the former Soviet Union have collapsed. Because of this, Russia should have no problem with Kyoto, as its current emission levels are considerably below its targets. Therefore, Russia was expected to approve the treaty. However, those who had hoped Russia would approve were disappointed in 2003 when Putin indicated his unwillingness to sign. The reason for this was the open criticism by Russian scientists for the scientific basis of Kyoto - the hypothesis that CO2 is a major cause of world climate change.
VI. The United States has neither approved nor withdrawn from the protocol. George W. Bush has indicated that he does not want to sign the treaty because he is not contented with the details of the treaty. He said of the treaty: "The world's second-largest emitter of greenhouse gases is China. Yet, China is entirely free from the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. This is unfair."
VII. Supporters of the Kyoto Protocol claim that reducing these emissions is very important; carbon dioxide, they believe