KPDS KASIM 1998 SORULARI
Mark the best choice
1. Asthma is a common …………... in which the airways lining the lung inflamed.
A- diagnosis B- disease C- fury D- patient E- recovery
2. From the report released today it appears that oil tankers suffer their major ……. on their return journeys.
A- spills B-costs C- repairs D- drills E- crews
3. People curious to get some idea of what it is like to be black in a country ………by whites need no further than Dennis William’s new novel ‘Crossover’.
A- tempted B- undermined C- perpetrated D- run E- deemed
4. It is plain that the United Nations will not lift the sanctions unless the Iraqi government fully ……..with the Security Council resolutions.
A- matches B- elaborates C- complies D- resumes E- accomplishes
5. When the chairman tried to explain his views to the shareholders at the ……… general meeting, he was shouted down by them with cries of ‘Resign’.
A- annual B- minimal C- essential D- ultimate E- recurrent
6. Because of their high toxic contents, none of these chemicals can …..…. be permitted for export to any country.
A- fruitfully B- adequately C- presently D- notoriously E- equivocally
7. I don’t know how we are going to ………. the expected surge of immigrants into the country.
A- look over B- run through C- put out D- take down E- cope with
8. The Jewish immigrants, who …….. the boat in England, formed the bulk of the ethnic groups arriving in a country historically wary of foreigners.
A- took after B- got off C- turned up D- made up E- showed off
9. As the decade ………..to wind down, Mark Morris ……..as our century’s youngest great choreographer.
A-has begun / had stood
B-will begin / is standing
C- was beginning / has stood
D- begins / stands
E- is beginning / has been standing
10. Of the many attempts that ………to regulate language one way or another very few……….
A- were made / had succeeded
B- have been made / have succeeded
C- are made / succeeded
D- could have been made / will succeed
E- are being made/ may have succeeded
11. An acorn, left itself becomes an oak, and a geneticist ………. its DNA to make it grow into an elm may justly be said …….. with its natural course.
A- altering / to have interfered
B- having altered / to interfere
C- to alter/ having interfered
D- being altered / interfered
E- to have altered / to be interfering
12. In the past few months, our company director ……… .more mettle than most industrialists …… in an entire career.
A-had shown / have done
B- showed / would do
C- shows / did
D- was showing / may have done
E- has shown / do
13. If they ……… what sort of a person he was, they ……… him their support.
A- would know / didn’t give
B- knew / won’t give
C- had known / wouldn’t have given
D- would have known/ hadn’t given
E- have known/ haven’t given
14. I don’t imagine he wrote the speech …… .but he did so certainly made a good job of it.
A- for them / whomever
B- of his/ somebody
C- by him / they
D- himself / whoever
E- themselves / whichever
15. As……… of our employees can afford care of ………. own, they all have to rely on public transport.
A- few/ them B- some / his C- none / their D- most / our E- many/ its
16. There are situations ………. the best way to heal the patient is to help him die peacefully.
A- from where B- in that C- where D- for whom E- in which
17. He is certainly going to recommend that the changes in the structure of the company be introduced step by step and…………. .
A- so I am B- so am I C- so do I D- I do, too E- I also do
18. Do you really believe that the party programme, ………. it now stands, is democratic…….. to influence the vote in our favour.
A- as / enough B- since / also C- where / as well D- such as / too E- that / even
19. Private investments play …….. important a part in the country’s long-running economic expansion ………… no government dares to increase taxation on personal savings.
A- too/ that B- such /as C- much /so D- so / that E- as / as
20. His proposal …….. the new social security policy seems more viable than any of the others.
A- by way of B- due to C- owing to D- in case of E- as regards
21. ………the recent rise in unemployment largely affects Eastern Germany, there is considerable unrest in Western German ,too.
A- Since B- In case C- Although D- Unless E- Until
22. ……… he was campaigning for re-election last year, he promised that ……… re-elected he would undertake to restructure the party.
A- Wherever / lest B- Because / while C- As / since D- While / unless E- When / if
23. ……… the terms of the forthcoming trade agreement, Japan wins parity …….. the United States.
A- Through / above B- By / of C- From / from D- Under / with E- After / over
24. We have yet to take ……… consideration the problem of how large future national armies should eventually be, regardless ……….. their current size.
A- onto / at B- in / in C- for / with D- under / from E- into / of
Find the best completion
25. Before Freud shed light on dreams and the extraordinary role of subconscious, ………….. .
A- there are many who grasped their significance
B- educated people in particular regarded dreams as meaningless and pointless
C- many traditional ways of interpreting dreams are being analysed
D- many traditional ways of interpreting dreams would surely have been recognised
E- many great writers still drew on the principles of human psychology
26. ………. until Thomas Pains published The Common Sense and sparked all the American Revolution.
A- George Washington considered himself a loyal British subject
B- Idealism hasn’t often been a determining factor
C- Voltaire’s influence would have been more pervasive
D- That was a period of radical change in all spheres
E- They were the people responsible for shaping the national character of the United States
27. …….. that scientists are now sending out ‘ E- prints’ instead of pre-prints of unpublished articles.
A- Prior to Internet, it was not possible
B- One change that the advent of the Internet has brought is.
C- The Internet has in deed opened many doors
D- The benefits of technology should not be over-rated
E- Among academics, technological advances attract less attention
28. Though Hong Kong used to be one of the world’s most alluring shopping centres, ……….. .
A- composition seems to be growing even keener
B- this was no longer the case
C- it might have remained a fashionable holiday resort
D- others did not share this opinion
E- it is now one of its most expensive
29. I would naturally have felt extremely disappointed ……..
A- since he must have been by far the best applicant
B- unless the competition has had very few entrants
C- even though the two teams were extraordinarily well matched
D- if they hadn’t sent us an invitation to the concert
E- as the first prize went to a racist author
30. The speaker from China has pointed out………….. .
A-so that preserving agricultural land is his government’s primary economic policy
B- that terracing the soil is one conservation method used widely in his country to control erosion
C- since urban renewal has completely changed the look of the cities in his country
D- as regards the fact that a handful of industrial nations monopolised deep-sea fishing until the early 1970s
E- while rich tropical forests are vanishing at the rate of some 11 million hectare a year
31. The overall quality of life in today’s world can not be improved……… .
A- just as population growth would strain the global urban environment
B- while the underdeveloped countries were ignored completely by international agencies like the United Nations and the World Bank
C- as the population of that part of the world rose from 800 million in 1960to 1.2 billion in 1985
D- unless the developed countries are prepared to offer a helping hand to the underdeveloped
E- whenever the OECD declines to support a serious of projects for the development of poorer countries
32. Some avalanches move no faster than 40 km per hour, ……….. .
A- while others have been estimated to have a speed of about 300 km per hour
B- even if the damage they did was minimal compared with the destruction caused by hurricanes and earthquakes
C- despite the fact that snow lying on a steep slope is always liable to avalanche
D- for the wind sometimes reaches a force almost equal to that of a tornado
E- so that in such areas measures may be taken to prevent large avalanches
Find the Turkish translation of the given sentence
33. I’d like to make it absolutely clear at the outset that I do not approve of the measures proposed by the consulting firm.
A- Hemen kesin olarak açıklayayımki danışman firma tarafından ortaya konulan görüşlerin hiçbirini kabul etmiyorum.
B- Öncelikle, danışman firmanın bizimle ilgili görüşlerine katılmadığını kesin olarak açıklamak isterim.
C- Başta çunu açık olarak kesinlikle belirtmek isterim ki danışmanlık şirketinin önermiş olduğu önerileri onaylamıyorum.
D- Danışmalığımızı yapan firmanın sunmuş olduğu çözümlerin hiçbirini uygun bulmadığımı baştan açık olarak ifade ediyorum.
E- Öncelikle ve kesin bir dille ifade etmek isterim ki danışmanlık şirketinin bize iletmiş olduğu önerileri hiçbir zaman olumlu bulmadım.
34. In his talk he stressed that economic relationships are complicated and changeable, since everything happens at once.
A- Konuşmasında, ekonomik ilişkilerin karmaşık olduğunu ve sürekli değiştiğini, bunun da her şeyin bir anda olup bitmesine yol açtığını ileri sürdü.
B -Yaptığı konuşmada, her şeyin bir anda olup bitmesinin nedeninin ekonomik ilişkilerdeki karmaşıklık değişkenlik olduğunu iddia etti.
C -Olayların bir anda olup bitmesi sonucu ekonomik ilişkilerin ne denli çapraşık ve farklı olduğunu, konuşmasında açıkça ortaya koydu.
D- Konuşmasındada belirttiği gibi, ekonomik ilişkiler hem karmaşık hem de değişken, çünkü her şey aniden ortaya çıkıyor.
E- Konuşmasında, her şey bir anda olup bittiği için ekonomik ilişkilerin karmaşık ev değişken olduğunu vurguladı.
35. In Latin America and Eastern Europe, where interventionist methods in the past were put into effect most austerely, it is governments, not outside economists, that today speak most favourably in support of market economics.
A- Geçmişte devlet müdahalesini esas alan ve bizzat uygulayan Latin Amerika ve Doğu Avrupa hükümetleri, yabancı uzmanlardan daha istekli bir şekilde pazar ekonomisini destekleyici konuşmalar yapmaktadır.
B- Bugün Latin Amerikadave Doğu Avrupada pazar ekonomisini destekleyenler, yabancı ekonomistlerden çok, geçmişte aşırı mücadeleci yöntemler uygulamış olan hükümetlerin bizzat kendileridir.
C- Geçmişte müdaheleci yöntemlerin en sert şekilde uygulamaya konulduğu Latin Amerika’da ve Doğu Avrupa’da, buğün pazar ekonomisi lehinde en olumlu konuşanlar yabancı ekonomistler değil, hükümetlerdir.
D- Bugün Latin Amerika’da ve Doğu Avrupa’da pazar ekonomisinin yararlarından söz edenle, sadece yabancı uzmanlar değil, geçmişte aşırı devlet müdahelesini benimsemiş olan hükümetlerin kendileridir.
E- Eskiden aşırı müdaheleci uygulamaların olduğu Latin Amerika‘da ve Doğu Avrupa’da, bugünkü hükümetler pazar ekonomisini yabancı ekonomistlerden daha fazla övmeye yönelmektedir.
36. Two months ago, the Czech finance minister told his people that the country’s four biggest banks would be fully privatised by the end of this year.
A -Ülkedeki en güçlü dört bankanın bu yıl sonunda tümüyle özelleştirileceği, Çek maliye bakanının iki ay önce halka yaptığı bir konuşmada açıklanmıştı.
B- Çek maliye bakanı iki ay önce halkına, ülkenin en büyük dört bankasının bu yıl sonuna kadar tümüyle özelleştirileceğini söyledi.
C- Çek maliye bakanı, ülkedeki dört büyük bankanın bu yıl sonunda tümüyle özelleştirileceğini iki ay öncesinden halka duyurdu.
D- Çek maliye bakanının iki ay öncesinden halka açıkladığına göre, ülkedeki en büyük dört banka bu yıl sonundan önce tümüyle özelleştirilmiş olacak.
E- Çek maliye bakanı, bu yıl sona ermeden ülkedeki en güçlü dört bankanın tümünün özelleştirilmesi gerektiğini iki ay önce halkına söylemişti.
37. Our company, a partner in an international consortium and headquartered in Istanbul, is looking for water resources engineers who have at least ten years of experience in irrigation engineering and land development.
A- Uluslararası bir konsorsiyomun ortağı olan ve merkezi Istanbul’da bulunan şirketimiz, sulama mühendisliği ve arazi islahında en az on yıl tecrübesi olan su kaynakları mühendisleri aramaktadır.
B- Merkezi Istanbul’da bulunan şirketimiz sulama mühendisliği ve arazi ıslahında en az on yıl tecrübeli, olan su mühendislarini istihdam etmektedir.
C- Sulama yöntemleri ve bölge kalkınmasında en az on yıl tecrübe sahibi olan su mühendisleri arayan şirketimiz, uluslararası bir konsorsiyumun üyesidir ve merkezi Istanbul’dadır.
D- Istanbul’da kurulmuş ve sulama işleri ile toprak ıslahında en az on yıllık tecrübeye sahip su mühendisleri arayan şirketimiz, uluslararası bir konsorsiyumun üyesidir.
E- Uluslararası bir konsorsiyoma dahil olan ve ana merkezi Istanbul’da bulunan şirketimiz, sulama işlerinde ve arazi ıslahında çalıştırılmak üzere su kaynaklarında en az on yıllık tecrübeye sahip su mühendislerine ihtiyaç duymaktadır.
38. In the Renaissance, the discovery of perspective gave artists the power to put onto a flat surface the world as it is seen by the naked eye.
A- Sanatçılar dünyayı, düz bir yüzeye çıplak gözle görüldüğü biçimde yansıtma olanağını ancak Rönesansta, perspektifin bulunmasıyla elde edilir.
B- Rönesansla sanatcılar, perspektifin bulunmasıyla çıplak gözle gördükleri dünyayı düz bir yüzeye yansıtma fırsatını elde etmişlerdir.
C- Perspektifin bulunması, Rönesans sanatcılarına, dünyayı çıplak gözle görüldüğü durumuyla bir düzleme aktarma yolunu açmıştır.
D- Rönesansla, perspektifin bulunması, sanatcılara dünyayı çıplak gözle görüldüğü şekliyle düz bir yüzeye aktarma gücü vermiştir.
E- Rönesans sanatçıları perspektif bularak, dünyayı çıplak gözle görüldüğü gibi, düz bir yüzeyde göstermeyi başarabilmişlerdir.
39. At a press conference today, the Prime Minister of Yemen announced that his Government had been granted a loan by the World Bank to assist the implementation of the Rural Development Project started two years ago.
A- Bugün yaptığı bir basın toplantısında, Yemen Başbakanı iki yıldan beri sürdürülen Köy Kalkınma Projesi için Dünya Bankası’nca hükümetine kredi sağlanacağını açıkladı.
B- Bugün yaptığı bir basın toplantısında , Yemen Başbakanı iki yıldan beri uygulanmakta olan Köy Kalkınma Projesinin sonuçlanmması amacıyla Dünya Bankası’nın hükümetine kaynak sağladığını açıkladı.
C- Yemen Başbakanı bugün bir basın toplantısı yaparak, iki yıl süreyle uygulanacak olan Jöy Kalkınma Projesinin tamamlanabilmesi için hükümetinin Dünya Bankası’ndan kredi istiyeceğini belirtti.
D- Bugün bir basın toplantısında konuşanYemen Başbakanı, iki yıl önce başlatılan Köy Kalkınma Projesinin yürütülebilmesi için hükümetinin Dünya Bankası’ndan yeni bir kredi sağladığını bildirdi.
E- Bugün bir basın toplantısında, Yeman Başbakanı iki yıl önce başlatılan Köykalkınma Projesinin uygulanmasına katkıda bulunması amacıyla, Dünya Bankası tarafından hükümetine kredi verildiğini açıkladı.
40. Oceans not only absorb carbon dioxide and other gases from atmosphere, but also hold and transport vast amount of heat through a network of currents.
A- Okyanusların atmosferdeki karbon dioksidi ve diğer gazları emmesi ve yüksek miktardaki ısıyı tutarak taşıması, ancak akıntıların oluşturduğu bir şebeke sayesinde gerçekleşmektedir.
B- Okyanuslar, atmosferdeki karbondioksidi ve diğer gazları emmez, ancak yüksek miktarlardaki ısıyı emerler ve çeşitli akıntılarla taşırlar.
C- Okyanuslar, akıntıların oluşturduğu bir ağ yardımıyla, hem atmosferdeki karbon dioksidi ve diğer gazları emer hemde büyük miktarlarda ısıyı tutarak taşırlar.
D- Okyanuslar sadece atmosferdeki karbon dioksidi ve diğer gazları emmekle kalmaz, aynı zamanda muazzam miktarlarda ısıyı tutarlar ve bir akıntı şebekesi aracılığıyla taşırlar.
E- Okyanuslar, akıntıların oluşturduğu bir şebeke sayesinde, hem atmosferdeki karbon dioksidi ve diğer gazları emiyorlar hemde çok yüksek miktarlara varan ısıyı tutarak hertarafa taşıyorlar.
41. Prince Sihanouk has always voiced his firm commitment to one principle; he is prepared to make any sacrifice necessary for the people of Cambodia.
A- Prens Sihanouk bir ilkeye kesin bağlılığını hep ifade etmiştir; o, Kamboçya halkı için gerekli her türlü özveride bulunmaya hazırdır.
B- Prens Sihanouk bir ilke ile ilgili taahüdünü hep hatırlamıştır; o kendisini, Kamboçya halkı gerekli gördüğü zaman kurban etmeye razıdır.
C- Prens Sihanouk’un daima bağlı olduğu bir ilke vardı; o, Kamboçya halkı için kendisini her zaman kurban etmeye hazırdır.
D- Prens Sihanouk daima bir ilkeye bağlı olduğunu söylemiştir; Kamboçya halkının ıslahı için gerekli özveride bulunmaya isteklidir.
E- Prens Sihanouk’un daima bağlı olduğunu söylediği bir ilke vardır; kendisi, Kamboçya halkı gerekli görürse, özveride bulunmaya hazırdır.
42. It is grossly unfair to blame the recent economic crises in Asia on investors, bankers and politicians.
A- Asyada görülen son ekonomik bunalımla ilgili olarak sadece yatırımcıları, bankacıları ve siyasetcileri hedef almak oldukça yanlış bir tutumdur.
B- Asya’da ortaya çıkan ekonomik bunalımın sorumlusu olarak bugünkü sanayicileri, bankacıları ve siyasetcileri görmek büyük bir yanılgıdır.
C- Asya’daki son ekonomik bunalımın suçunu yatırımcılara, bankacılara ve siyasetcilere yıkmak tamamen haksızlıktır.
D- Asya’daki son ekonomik bunalıma yatırımcıların, bankacıların ve siyasetcilerin yol açtığını söylemek çok yanlış olur.
E- Sadece sanayicileri, bankacıları ve siyasetcileri, yakın geçmişte Asya’da ekonomik bir bunalım yaratmakla şuçlamak tamamen yanlıştır.
Find the English translation
43. Ülkenin en kalabalık kenti ve İsviçre bankacılığının kalbi olan Zurih, kendi okullarında dil öğretiminin iyileştirilmesi için bir danışma kurulu oluşturdu.
A- Zurich, one of the most crowded cities in the country and the main centre of Swiss banking, has decided to establish a working committee for the improvement of language schools.
B- Zurich, the most popular city of the country and the heart of Swiss banking, set up an advisory committee for the improvement of language schools.
C- The first of the advisory committee to be set up for the advance of language teaching in schools was in Zurich, which is an extremely crowded city and the banking centre of Switzerland.
D- For the development of language teaching in schools, a special committee was set up for Zurich, since it is a very crowded city and the heart of banking in Switzerland.
E- Zurich, which is an overpopulated city and has been the heart of banking in Switzerland, has launched a policy for efficient language teaching in its schools in line with the advisory committee’s recommendations.
44. İngiliz ihracatcılar, hükümetlerine, sterlinin ulsştığı düzeyden olduğu kadar, tırmandığı hızdanda şikayet etmektedir.
A-British exporters denounce the government for the level sterling has reached as well as for the speed at which it has climbed.
B- British exporters are criticising the government as much for the speed which sterling has risen as for the level it has reached.
C- British exporters blame the government for the rapidness of the rise of the sterling as well as for the level to which it has risen.
D- It is as much the speed at which sterling has climbed as the level to which it has risen that has made British exporters criticise their government.
E- British exporters complain to their government as much about the speed with which sterling has climbed as about the level it has reached.
45. 1980’lerin sonlarında İngiltere’de Wilson hükümeti, ücret artışlarının enflasyon üzerindeki etkisini kontrol edebilmek için sendikaların desteğini kazanmaaya çalıştı.
A- Having won the union’s support in Britain in the late 1980’s, the Wilson government was able to control inflation by cutting down on wage increases.
B- Later in the 1980s in Britain, the Wilson government won the Union’s support, thus making it possible to control the effect of wage increases upon inflation.
C- With a view to controlling the effect of wage increases upon inflation in Britain, the Wilson government began, towards the end of 1980s, to ask for more support from the Unions.
D- In the late 1980s in Britain, the Wilson government tried to win the Union’s support in order to control the effect of wage increases on wage inflation.
E- The Wilson government won the support of the Unions in the late 1980s in Britain by controlling the effect of wage increases on inflation.
46. Kamuoyu yoklamaları farklılık gösterir, ancak Avustralyalıların yaklaşık üçte ikisi cumhuriyet istediklerini açıkça söylemektedirler.
A- Opinion polls are inconclusive, but roughly two-thirds of all Australians are clearly pleaded to have a republic.
B- Opinion polls may vary, but well over two-thirds of the Australians admit that they want a republic.
C- Opinion polls conclusively show that roughly two-thirds of the Australian people actually want a republic.
D- Opinion polls are unreliable, but nevertheless it is apparent that two-thirds or so of the Australian people are in favour of a republic.
E- Opinion polls vary, but about two-thirds of the Australians openly say that they want a republic.
47. Sovyetler birliği çöktüğünden beri, sermaye kaçışı, komunizm sonrası Rusya’nın başlıca ekonomik hastalıklarından biri olmuştur.
A- Ever since the Soviet Union collapsed, capital flight has been one of post communist Russia’s chief economic plagues.
B- Once the Soviet Union collapsed, capital flight became the most persistent of all post communist Russia's economic headaches.
C- Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, post communist Russia’s economy has been plagued by capital flight.
D- Capital flight has , ever since the Soviet Union collapsed, been one of the feared economics problems of post communist Russia.
E- Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the start of the post-communist era, Russia’s economy has suffered on account of capital flight.
48. Hindistan’da şuçun giderek daha az önemli bir sorun olduğu düşüncesi, tamamen yanıltıcıdır.
A- It would be quite wrong to assume that crime is becoming a less serious problem in India.
B- The idea that the crime is becoming a less significant problem in India is completely misleading.
C- It would be most unfair to infer that the problem of crime is steadily being disregarded in India.
D- The idea that the crime is on the decrease in India is completely wrong.
E- The view that crime in India is steadily ceasing to be a major problem is rather disturbing.
49. 1970’lerdeki büyük petrol bunalımından beri, Uluslararası Enerji Kurumu alternatif enerji kaynakları bulmak için yapılan araştırmaları teşvik etmiş ve desteklemiştir.
A- Since the great oil crisis of the 1970s, the International Energy Agency has encouraged and supported research carried out to discover alternative energy sources.
B- Since there was a great oil crisis in the 1970s, the International Energy Agency has been encouraging and supporting research into alternative energy sources.
C- Following the serious oil crisis of the 1970s the International Energy Agency has been encouraging and subsidising any research pertaining to alternative energy resources.
D- Following the great oil crisis of the 1970s, the International Energy Agency has encouraged research that might lead to the discovery of alternative energy sources.
E- The great oil crisis of the 1970s convinced the International Energy Agency of the need to support research into the development of alternative energy resources.
50. Avrupa’da ortak pazar için ilk planı daha 1943-44’lerde tasarlayan, eski Hollanda dışişleri bakanı J.W. Boyen idi.
A- Back in 1943 or 1944, it was a former Dutch foreign minister, J.W.Boyen, who first announced a plan for a common market in Europe.
B- As early as 1943-44, the first plan for the Common European market was drawn up by J.W.Boyen, Holland’s former foreign minister.
C- The first plan for Europe’s common market dates from 1943-44 and was drawn up by J.W.Boyen, a former Dutch foreign minister.
D- It was J.W.Boylen, a former Dutch foreign minister, who as early as 1943-44, drafted the first plan for a common market in Europe.
E- As far back as 1943-44 J.W Boyen, who at the time was the Dutch foreign minister, drew up the first plan for a European common market.
51. Bizimki sadece küçük bir nakşliye şirketi olduğu için navlunda indirim yapmamız maalesef mümkün değildir.
A- Since ours is only a small transport company, I am afraid it is impossible for us to make a discount on the sea freight.
B- Because our transport company is rather small, we sometimes manage to offer a discount on the sea freight.
C- Though ours is quite small transport company, it shouldn’t be impossible for us to arrange a discount on the freight.
D- I am sorry but, as this is only a small transport company, it would be unreasonable to expect a discount on the sea freight.
E- A small transport company such as ours cannot reasonable be expected to offer any discount on the sea freight.
52. Dicle Üzerine yapılan kaya dolgu yeni baraj, en şiddetli depremlere dayanacak kadar sağlamdır.
A- The new rock-fill dam built on the Tigris has been designed so as to stand firmly even in the event of a violent earthquake.
B- There is a new rock-fill dam on the Tigris which has been constructed to be strong enough to withstand the most severe of earthquakes.
C- The new rock-fill dam, constructed on the Tigris, is strong enough to withstand the most severe earthquakes.
D- Even an extremely violent earthquake could not damage the new rock-fill dam constructed on the Tigris.
E- The new rock-fill dam on the Tigris was built so solidly that even a severe earthquake couldn’t pose a treat.
Find the best completion for the blanks
53. There are several ways in which to write medical history. ………. . Then there is the social approach to the history of the medicine that concentrates on how, when, where, by whom and with what effect the ill were treated in times gone by. Yet, another approach is to deal with the influence of disease upon the course of human affairs.
A- It is only in the past 50 years that doctors have appreciated how dangerous experience can be as a guide to action
B- A major area with which medical history is concerned is pathology
C- But all the strands of medical history could not possibly be woven into a coherent and comprehensive whole
D- Most accounts of medical developments lack coherence and are often out-dated
E- One method, and this is the one preferred by doctors, is to trace progress from complete medical ignorance to a high level of medical competence
54. The firm Cartier was founded by Louis Francais Cartier in 1847 in Paris, but until the end of the century, it remained quite a small concern. ………….. . Within ten years there were also branches in London and New York, and each of the branches was run by a grandson of the founder.
A- No one guessed then how these Cartier creations would soon capture the popular imagination.
B- A move to new and more specious premises in 1899 opened the way to expansion
C- Many of Cartier’s craftsmen drew on original antique artefacts for their inspiration
D- For many years the designs were to remain largely Renaissance-inspired
E- More exotic work followed, based on Persian, Indian and, finally, on Russian styles
55. How intelligent can machines become? Philosophers and scientists have inconclusively debated this question since before the computer age. One of the reasons put forward believing in the impossibility of truly intelligent machine is simply that machines are created by people. ………… . They do what he wants them to; machines have “derived intent”, while only humans have “original intent”.
A- Laziness is a human feeling and unknown to machines
B- Computers themselves are now presenting a more practical side to this debate
C- This is actually why people are giving machines more and more responsibility
D- This, it is argued, makes them man’s slaves rather than his equals
E- The more complex a task the machine achieves, the more it will be asked to do
56. A career as a space-traffic controller isn’t one most guidance counsellors recommend. But what that should change. ……………. Industry analyses worry that, without properly trained ground control crews to steer them, satellites could easily hurtle into another.
A- NASA intends to launch successive waves of each model to keep the data coming in for 15 years.
B- The satellites presently on the NASA drawing boards will focus primarily on scientific uncertainties
Surrounding global warming
C- With more than 200 satellites already in orbit and 1.300 more set to be launched during the next decade, space is going to need some traffic control
D- The EOS satellites alone are expected to cost 8 billion dollars to build, launch and maintain just through the year 2000
E- The EOS sensors will chart the visible, infrared and microwave effects of clouds
57. There are, apparently, sufficient raw materials at hand on the moon to turn it into the shipbuilding capital of solar system. Building shuttles and satellites on the moon would allow them to be launched from the low-gravity lunar surface. …………. .
A- This would mean that less fuel and, thus, less money would be needed
B- The amount and variety of the mineral deposits on the moon have yet to be assessed
C- The potential for solar energy on the moon is unlimited
D- Other companies are particularly interested in the helium deposits on the moon
E- Iron will thus be the first mineral to be mined on the moon
58. Napoleon, the greatest of all generals, dismissed and disgraced Admiral Bruix for questioning an order to call his fleet. …………. . As a result, twenty ships were wrecked and 2.000 men were drowned. From this incident we can understand that the absolute obedience that a general can command is not appropriate at sea.
A- Even so, Bruix continued to admire and obey Napoleon
B- By the time his successor had been appointed, the adverse weather conditions were over
C- Everyone knew that this admiral never took risks
D- Napoleon seemed to know instinctively what the right course of action would be
E- His deputy obeyed the command although the wind was wrong
Find the odd sentence
59. (I) The Morley gallery has once again caught the attention of the public. (II) Its exhibition programme is richly varied and focuses on the lose well-known painters. (III) In the current exhibition, some of the paintings of Joseph Hayward, a promising young painter, are on show. (IV) The gallery is situated on the outskirts of London, but within easy reach of the metro. (V) Examples of his early work, such as a large watercolour of a garden are also included.
A- I B- II C- III D- IV E- V
60. (I) A camera is now being developed that scans the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the human body. (II) The police, after all, never do show any enthusiasm for technological innovations. (III) It may prove to be a great asset in crime detection as hidden objects –which distort that radiation- show up as cold spots. (IV) It can detect weapons and drugs hidden beneath layers of clothing. (V) Moreover, it has apparently no dangerous side effects.
A- I B- II C- III D- IV E- V
61. (I) There are clever lawyers and dull ones, fast runners and slow ones, good cooks and bad ones. (II) However, when it comes to the investment, this human variety seems to disappear. (III) Those who manage money and prepare market analysis for companies are naturally well paid. (IV) Numerous studies suggest that” exceptional” investment managers simply do not exist. (V) In any given period each has no more than an even change of doing better than the market index.
A- I B- II C- III D- IV E- V
62. (I) Agricultural teaching in West African schools invariably meets with apathy. (II) Even so, agricultural education is a necessity, but it should be directed towards the farmer himself. (III) He needs instruction in new techniques. (IV) The majority of these students acquire a lifelong distaste for all forms of activity. (V) He also needs information on new and profitable cash crops and potential local markets.
A- I B- II C- III D- IV E- V
63. (I) The basic strategy of the war on poverty during the 1960s was to try to give everyone entering the job market comparable skills. (II) Of these, the best mechanism for breaking this vicious cycle seemed to be educational reform. (III) This meant placing great emphasis on education. (IV) Many people imagined that if schools could equalise people’s cognitive skills, this would equalise their bargaining power as adults. (V) In such a system nobody would end up very poor or, presumably, very rich.
A- I B- II C- III D- IV E- V
64. (I) As forests are cut down many wild animals are finding it harder to survive. (II) Sadly the range of the leopard, for instance, is but a fraction of what it formerly was. (III) They are, for instance, no longer to be found in Europe proper. (IV) Fortunately, there are instances of such endangered species managing to re-establish themselves. (V) In the Caucasus and northern Iran there are still some, but their numbers are decreasing rapidly.
A- I B- II C- III D- IV E- V
Find what can be said in the given cases
65. Your sister has announced that she is going to be married at the end of the year. You’ve heard plenty about the young man, and all to his credit. So you are quite happy about the marriage; but you still do want to meet him first. You say;
A- This is all rather sudden, isn’t it? What does he do for a living?
B- Well; this is a surprise. Tell me all about him.
C- I hope you are not acting impulsively! Is there something trying to hide as we still haven’t met him?
D- I’m so glad! I know you’ve made an excellent choice and you certainly deserve to be happy.
E- Well, congratulations and all my best wishes. But I do hope you‘ll bring him round to meet us before the wedding.
66. For a while now a friend has been having trouble with a group of workmen in his factory, and matters are now coming to a head. You feel he is behaving in too harsh a manner and want to point this out to him in a tactful way so as not to offend him. You say;
A- My advice to you is to make no concessions whatsoever and let those leave who want to leave.
B- Your trouble is you are too hard on them. I’m surprised you have got any workmen left.
C- I can’t understand the problem. Please explain it again to me.
D- There’s always trouble in the workforce everywhere. Just ignore it.
E- Are you sure this is the correct approach that you are taking? They might respond better to a gentler treatment.
67. Some time ago, a friend persuaded you to employ his son in the personnel department of the firm of which you are a director. Within a short time you began to regret having done so, for the young man had turned out to be lazy and unprincipled. You express your regrets to a colleague, saying;
A- Oh well, we can send him to another department if that is what you want
B- I’m glad I was able to help a friend in this way
C- If I had known then what he was like, I would have never taken him on.
D- I expect he will resign as soon as his contract expires.
E- I don’t suppose any of the other candidates would have been any better.
68. A friend of yours, who is the manager of a company, tells you that he has dismissed one of his employees, an engineer, for immoral conduct in the workplace. He further informs you that he has received several threatening telephone calls from this same person. Your friend is very upset and comes to you for advice. You feel firm action must be taken. So you say;
A- Next time he calls, just tell him politely that you are upset with his calls.
B- If he calls again, tell him you are going to take legal action . And do so!
C- If I were you, I would ignore the whole matter.
D- As far as I understand it, you seem to be in for a lot of trouble.
E- As a matter of fact, telephone calls of this kind don’t need to be taken seriously.
69. As an eminent scholar you have been invited to give a series of lectures in South America. Since recently you find you get tired easily, you feel the journey would be very exhausting for you; so, you decline the invitation, giving your reason at the same time. You say;
A- I’m afraid I cannot accept your kind invitation because, for a person at my age, the journey would prove too tiring.
B- I have to turn down the invitation since I understand it is unsafe to travel in your country.
C- Thank you for the invitation but I no longer accept invitations that involve much travelling, as I cannot afford the time.
D- I would like to accept your invitation, but tell me first how much travelling is involved.
E- Though I fear the journey will be rather tiring for me I will look forward to visiting South America.
70. You learn that a close colleague of yours in the Economics Department has been nominated for the Nobel Prize in economics. You feel thrilled for him and call immediately to congratulate him. He tells you that he doesn’t expect to receive the prize because there will almost certainly, be other candidates better than he is. Thereupon, to encourage him, you say;
A- You are probably right: You’ll just have to wait and see how it turns out.
B- True. And after all one never knows how much the issue is affected by the politics.
C- If I were you, I’d not raise my hopes too high.
D- Surely you are one of the leading economists in the world and have as much chance as any one else.
E- You should have pleased that at least you’ve been nominated.
Find the best statement
71. Interviewer: Did you get the overwhelming support of the women in your constituency?
Newly-elected woman representative: …………………
Interviewer: How do you account for that?
Newly-elected woman representative: I suppose the issues I talked about were not of primary concern to them.
A- Probably. There are more than men in the constituency.
B- I really have no idea
C- Yes, I suppose so. But the men voted too.
D- Yes; and I have already thanked them
E- No, I don’t think I did.
72. Brian: Have the police asked for your version of the story yet?
Peter: No, not yet. But they did say I should try to avoid discussing the matter.
Brian : ………………
Peter : Did they really? It all seems extremely serious.
A- They have begun saying that to everyone, but to no effect.
B- Well, we do try not to. But it is on everyone’s mind.
C- They told me the same thing.
D- I gave my version yesterday. But they didn’t seem interested.
E- But that’s not easy as they very well know.
73. John: Clare seemed very animated! What was she talking to you about?
Brenda: Oh. Her new job. And the people she is working with.
Brenda: She may do . Let’s hope so.
A- Does she look like making a success of it this time.
B- What’s she doing there? Is she a receptionist?
C- What’s the salary like? Is she satisfied?
D- I hope this will prove to be a satisfactory post for her
E- I suppose you told her she was lucky to get any job at all.
74. Mr.Robinson: What’s happened to the “phone”? I’ve been trying to get you all afternoon.
Mrs. Robinson: It is out of order.
Mr. Robinson: ……………………
Mrs. Robinson: I think all the lines in our neighbourhood are being changed.
A- Are you sure?
B- Do you know why?
C- Since when?
D- When did that happen?
E- Who said so?
75. Andrew: How was your holiday in Budapest? Did you find it expensive?
Andrew: Really? I didn’t realise you’d been there before.
Roger: Oh, yes. I was stationed therefore nearly five years. I only left in 1993.
A- It is a most interesting city. You really should see it yourself.
B- I suppose it was- but I was there on business, so it was all on the farm.
C- I was much too busy to do any shopping.
D- There were some beautiful hand-made articles that you could buy very cheaply.
E- No. But I know the city well; so I can manage cheaply.
76. Edward: I hear Jane has had another novel published. Have you read any of the reviews?
Barry: No. And frankly I’m not very interested in her any longer.
Barry: That was true five or six years ago, but not any longer.
A- I overheard Whitley saying this is her best novel ever.
B- Why is that? I thought she was generally regarded as quite the most gifted of our younger novelists.
C- Actually I was planning to include her in my thesis.
D- Is her work really as erudite as so many of your reviews suggest?
E- Would you agree that her early work is largely autobiographical but that she is now using more abstract themes?
Find the closest in meaning
77. His career took off to a brilliant start but since then his record hardly seems deserving of mild praise, let alone glory.
A- His career record has not lived up to his early promise, so he really does not merit either our approval or our praise.
B- His career began with a stunning success, but than he did nothing to earn either the praise or the approval he now receives.
C- In spite of his early promise, his career record shows nothing deserving of the special praise or glory he seems to expect.
D- He was amazingly successful at the start of his career, but afterwards he has done nothing to merit even a moderate amount of approval and certainly not renown.
E- Had his career record been in line with the brilliant start he made, he would most certainly have earned high honours and great renown.
78. International conventions have long been prohibiting the use of chemical weapons during war, but how effective is this likely to be?
A- If various international bodies agreed to a long-term ban on chemical warfare, couldn’t the ban be put into effect?
B- Can such international bodies be relied upon to ban effectively and in the long-term the use of chemical weapons in time of war?
C- For many years now, chemical warfare has been banned by international agreement, but can the ban be enforced?
D- How effective might the prohibition of chemical warfare be if it had the backing of so many international bodies?
E- Over a period of very many years various international agreements have been drawn up to prohibit the use of chemical weapons in wartime, but they have hardly been effective, have they?
79. I surely couldn’t have been expected to forgive him readily as this wasn’t the first time he had tried to cheat me.
A- It was only natural that I should have been unwilling to forgive him as he had behaved dishonestly towards me on other occasions.
B- As he’d tried to cheat me on several previous occasions, I felt I was right not to forgive him this time.
C- It was impossible for me not to forgive him even though he’d tried to deceive me several times before.
D- I might have been willing to forgive him if this had been the first time I had caught him cheating me.
E- Since this wasn’t the first time he’d attempted to deceive me I was obviously not going to forgive him.
80. Nothing exercises the British Press so much as an apparent threat to the welfare of the British Press.
A- The well-being of the British Press is apparent in the way it shows a united front in the face of attack.
B- It is only when the British Press is being criticised that it really shows its mettle.
C- The one time when the British Press really wakes up and acts is when it feels its own well-being is endangered.
D- The British Press has had much practice in upholding its own interests in the face of opposition.
E- Should its own freedom be threatened, the British Press would unite to withstand attack.
81. Though diplomatic efforts to forestall the bombardment have been intensified there is apparently no progress towards an agreement.
A- Every known means of diplomacy has been tried , but peace seems to recede and the expected attack to be quickly approaching.
B- Reconciliation remains a remote hope, for diplomatic channels apparently lack the necessary authority to check an attack.
C- In spite of diplomatic efforts to the contrary, the bombardment was a violent one and all hopes of an agreement were sheltered.
D- Though they are desperately in need of a truce, they can find no way to achieve one and now await the attack.
E- Reconciliation seems no nearer, even though a massive effort is being made to find a diplomatic solution and so avoid a bombardment.
82. The last time I saw your brother was when I ran into him at the station when I was on my way to Glasgow.
A- The last time I went to Glasgow I happened to meet your brother at the station.
B- I haven’t seen your brother since a chance meeting at the station with him when I was setting off for Glasgow.
C- Your brother and I finally met at the station as it happened that I was going to Glasgow.
D- Your brother and I finally met on the Glasgow train just as it was leaving the station.
E- As the Glasgow train drew out of the station I got a last glimpse of your brother.
Read the passages and find the answers
Eliminating poverty is largely a matter of helping children born into poverty to rise out of it. Once families escape from poverty, they do not fall back into it. Middle-class children rarely end up poor. The primary reason poor children do not escape from poverty is that they do not escape from poverty is that they do not acquire basic mental skills. They cannot read, write calculate or articulate. Lacking these skills, they cannot get or keep a well-paid job. The best mechanism for breaking this vicious cycle is to provide the poor with better educational opportunities. Since children born into poor homes do not acquire the skills they need from their parents, they must be thought these skills in school.
83. The writer makes the point that once people have overcome poverty, ………. .
A- the skills of reading and writing cease to be important for them
B- they cease to mix socially with the poor.
C- they soon learn to adopt middle class manners and ways
D- it is most unlikely that they will ever become poor again.
E- they become eligible for well paid employment in industry
84. According to the writer, is poverty to be overcome, ………… .
A- the only effective means for this would be to provide better education
B- more well-paid jobs should be offered to the poor
C- all children, regardless of their social class should receive the same formal education.
D- middle class children should be given better educational opportunities.
E- the education of children should be based on mental skills alone
85. The main argument of the passage is that……………. .
A- the elimination of poverty can only be achieved if the poor and the rich attend the same schools
B- middle-class children do not need to learn basic mental skills at school, since they learn them at home
C- the children of the poor must learn basic mental skills at school so that they can escape from poverty
D- since basic mental skills are not being taught efficiently at schools, educational reform is essential
E- a child born into a poor family will inevitably stay poor all through his life
Not just in substance but in manner too, Robin Travelyan, who is the Prime Minister’s new right-hand man, is a politician in the old style. He avoids the flourish, which characterised modern politicians. His speeches are at best unemotional at worst dull. He is all but incapable of inspiring an audience. His pace is inexpressive, solid almost. He evades making promises and is completely lacking in vision. He is a politician whose talent has never been to inspire the mob.
86. We can understand from the passage that Robin Travelyan ………….. .
A- cannot keep his feelings from the public eye
B- has, with his speeches, always been able to sway public feeling.
C- is, with his dramatic speeches, a typical politician of our time
D- is trusted and valued by the prime minister
E- is one of those rare politicians who really understands the psychology of the people
87. With regard to the Prime minister’s new right-hand man, it is pointed out in the passage that one of his shortcomings as a politician is ………… .
A- his lack of any genuine belief in his own party
B- his inability to follow someone else’s lead
C- his reluctance to commit himself or articulate a vision
D- his tendency to scorn public opinion
E- his fondness for modern political manners
88. In this passage, the writer has set out to ……………… .
A- highlight the rare political qualities of the present Prime Minister.
B- criticise modern British politics in the person of the Prime Minister
C- portray the ideal type of a politician in our time
D- account for the failure of the Prime Minister’s previous adviser
E- present a concise study of the political personality of the Prime Minister’s new adviser
Work is central in British culture. When someone asks one “What do you do?”, they really mean “ What work do you do?” when a woman is asked “ Do you work?”, what is meant is “ Are you doing a paid job?” Yet many people without a paid job work at other kinds of productive activities. Women notably, perform an unpaid double shift in the home as housekeepers and mothers. To confine the term “work” to paid employment, therefore, restricts it far too narrowly. There are many other kinds of work, some of which can take more time and energy than we put into our paid employment: from voluntary working in the garden to repairs to the house or the car. In other cultures, work is not highly valued as this; some people value leisure more, and work only as much as they need in order to provide basic necessities
89. The writer suggests that people tend to regard the word “work” as ………… .
A- referring only to paid employment
B- being limited only to voluntary work
C- relating only to physical effort
D- interchangeable with “leisure”
E- an activity with an end product
90. The writer points out that, unlike the case in Britain, in some cultures, …………. .
A- work in any form is highly respected
B- unpaid activities such as housework make up virtually the whole of o woman’s day
C- voluntary work is held in high respect
D- it is leisure, not work, that is of primary importance
E- people are unwilling to work to meet even their basic necessities.
91. Accarding to the passage, unpaid jobs…………. .
A- are invariably more pleasurable than paid ones
B- can be quite as time-consuming as paid ones
C- are always assigned to women rather than to men
D- are not readily available in Britain
E- are rarely taken on by people who go out to work
Alcohol, nicotine and caffeine are psychoactive drugs that are freely available in our society. Their widespread use shows that they provide a common solution to the problems of vast numbers of individuals. The extent and nature of their use if not , however, uniform but varies with the particular sub-culture involved To take alcohol for example, there are wide resemblance between the drinking habits and rituals of merchant seamen and businessmen, between Italians and Jews. Each sub-group in society will have a conception of what is the appropriate situation for a drink; what the permissible and desirable effects of alcohol are; how much it is necessary to drink to achieve this desired state; what is normal and what is deviant drinking behaviour.
92. It is pointed out in the passage that psychoactive drugs such as alcohol, nicotine and caffeine are widely used because ………….. .
A- sub-groups in society identify themselves with them
B- people with problems find them helpful
C- their effects have been proved to be harmless
D- they are much cheaper than many other drugs and legally obtainable
E- society at large regards them as harmful
93. According to the author, the consumption of alcohol in the world ………….. .
A- is particularly widespread among members of sub-culture
B- is directly related to the economic prosperity of each sub-group
C- varies from race to race, culture to culture and class to class
D- is closely linked with the increase of deviant drinking behaviour
E- has made the practices and behaviour of sub-cultures in society more uniform
94. The writer points out that there is little agreement among sub-groups………… .
A- about the extent to which psychoactive drugs should be produced
B- about the benefits of psychoactive drugs
C- as regards why Italians and Jews have different drinking habits
D- as to why Italians and Jews have different drinking habits
E- as to how much alcohol can be properly consumed
In the early 1970s, there was a great deal of optimism about improving women’s position ending male privilege and doing away with gender divisions and even gender difference. Equal opportunities legislation was enacted in many countries, and the voice of women’s movement was heard criticising discrimination between the sexes in every sphere of working info. How it is clear that legislation can make only a marginal difference to entrenched patterns of job segregation and inequality. The voices of feminism, too, are varied; some demand equality with men while others pursue the revaluation of women’s skills and “womanly” virtues.
95. It is pointed out in the passage that many people in the early 1970s………….. .
A- realised that a majority of women were not genuinely interested in job segregation
B- were doubtful as to whether legislation could improve the position of women in society
C- actively took part in women’s demonstrations against male aggression and dominance in the work-place
D- confidently expected the elimination of the inequality existing between the sexes
E- were scarcely aware of there being any discrimination between the sexes
96. According to the author, legislation against gender discrimination ………… .
A- has contributed surprisingly little towards improvement of women’s position in society
B- has been grossly neglected especially in less prosperous countries
C- has, in many countries, already made the position of women fully equal to that of men
D- has brought about a balance in society that satisfies the women’s movement everywhere
E- has been fully successful in eradicating job segregation in industrial countries
97. According to the passage, there are people in the feminist movement who ………….. .
A- argue that women don’t deserve equal opportunities with men in working life
B- believe that women’s qualifies have been undervalued and should be reassessed
C- are convinced that women would have a stronger position if they kept their femininity
D- believe that the movement is far from achieving any of its original objectives
E- are concerned that the legislation against sex discrimination in working life may be revoked in the near future.
All of us are born, and all of us will die; but there is infinite variety in the nature and circumstances of these two events themselves and in what happens to our bodies and our minds in between. Some individuals, for example, are born without difficulty and grow uninterruptedly during childhood and adolescence, suffering at worst only minor infectious diseases and accidents. As adults, they reproduce their kind. They age gradually until, in extreme old age, they die peacefully without pain or discomfort. This is an idealised picture of how we would like things to be, rather than the reality that most people experience. Death comes to many of us, not when we are very old, but during or before birth, in infancy, in adolescence, in early adulthood or in middle age.
98. One point made by the author in this passage is that we, as human beings, ………… .
A- must face the fact that accidents in old age are inevitable
B- have all similar opportunities but use them differently
C- all enjoy a happy childhood and a healthy adolescence
D- ought to take certain measures to avoid infections diseases in childhood
E- have widely differing experiences of birth, life and death
99. The writer points out that, though most people expect life to be free of care and death easy, …….. .
A- this is not likely to happen either in adolescence or in adulthood.
B- they have to strive hard to attain this idealised condition
C- this is, in fact, very rarely the case
D- for many people a worthwhile life has more to it than this
E- this is said in the case except in old age
100. In this passage the writer points out the disparity between ………… .
A- the basically fortunate lives of the majority and the tragic experiences of a small minority
B- what everyone expects of life and what he actually achieves in life
C- the early happy years of our lives, and the later, tragic ones
D- the near ideal life experience of the few and the actual life experience of the majority
E-the happier middle years of a person’s life and the more trying later years
KPDS NOVEMBER 1998 QUESTIONS KEY
1.B 2. 3.D 4.C 5.A 6.C 7.E 8.B 9.E 10.B
11.A 12.E 13.C 14.D 15.C 16.E 17.B 18.A 19.D 20.E
21.A 22.E 23.D 24.E 25.B 26.A 27.B 28.E 29.D 30.B
31.D 32.A 33.C 34.E 35.C 36.B 37.A 38.D 39.E 40.D
41.A 42.C 43.B 44.E 45.D 46.E 47.A 48.B 49.A 50.D
51.A 52.C 53.E 54.B 55.D 56.C 57.A 58.E 59.D 60.B
61.C 62.D 63.E 64.D 65.E 66.E 67.C 68.B 69.A 70.D
71.E 72.C 73.A 74.B 75.E 76.B 77.D 78.E 79.B 80.C
81.B 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90.
91.A 92.B 93.E 94.D 95. 96.A 97.B 98.E 99.C 100.B